Precalculus: Mathematics for Calculus, 7th Edition

$x-2$ is a factor of P(x) since when P(x) is divide by $x-2$, the remainder is 0. (refer to the step by step part for the solution)
RECALL: The factor theorem states that c is a zero of P if and only if x−c is a factor of P(x). $c=2$ therefore $x-c = x-2$ Divide P(x) by $x+1$ using synthetic division to have: