## Intermediate Algebra for College Students (7th Edition)

$-1$
RECALL: (1) $a^{mn} = (a^m)^n$ (2) $i^2=-1$ (3) $a^{m+n} = a^m \cdot a^n$ Use rule (1) above to obtain: $=(i^2)^{23}$ Use rule (2) to obtain: $=(-1)^{23}$ Note that when $-1$ raised to an odd power, the result is $-1$. Thus, $(-1)^{23} = -1$