Functions Modeling Change: A Preparation for Calculus, 5th Edition

$-1$
Use the fact that $(a^b)^n=a^{bn}$ to rewrite the expression as $$(-1)^{445}=((-1)^2)^{222}(-1)$$ Note that in this example, $2(222)+1=444+1=445$. This expression can be simplified using the fact that $(-1)^2=1$ and that $1^{222}=1$ to get a result of $(1)(-1)=-1$.