Kamble was born on 14 March 1953, in Mahar Dalit family of village-Kargani, Atpadi near Sangli. He was a follower of Dr. B. R. Ambedkar as Dr.Ambedkar was an inspiration to him.His mother and father both were School Headmaster in Sangli. His mother (Shantabai Kamble) and father (Krushnaji Kamble) have written autobiographies called Majya Jalmachi Chittarkatha and Mi Krushna respectively. His father was a well known personality in Kargani district.
His school days were in Athapadi and Dighanchi at Sangli. He completed B.A. (honors) from Willingdon College, Deccan Education Society, Sangli in 1974. Later he earned his M.A. from Siddhartha College in 1976 with distinction in "Shodhnibandh ani Shodhnibandhachi Lekhan Paddhati". His major interests were Dalit literature and Ambedkarite Movement.
He joined Dr. Ambedkar College of Commerce and Economics, Wadala, Mumbai in 1976 as a lecturer of Marathi (1976–1985). Later he joined Kirti College, Dadar (W), Mumbai (1985–1989). In 1990 he joined the University of Mumbai as a "Reader". Until his death he was a PhD Guide in Marathi Department and also was Head of Phule, Shahu Chair in University of Mumbai.