## Precalculus: Concepts Through Functions, A Unit Circle Approach to Trigonometry (3rd Edition)

$-1$
$\because y=\log_a x \text{ is equivalent to } x= a^y$ $\therefore -1 = \log_3 3^x \text{ is equivalent to } 3^x=3^{-1}$ Solve the equation above using the rule $a^m=a^n\implies =n$ to obtain: $$3^x=3^{-1}$$ $$x=-1$$