No Sugar

No Sugar Literary Elements


Realism, Australian History


English, with elements of traditional Aboriginal Nyoongah language.

Setting and Context

Northam; Moore River Settlement, during the Assimilation period of Australian history (late 1920s-1930s).

Narrator and Point of View

Tone and Mood

At times comic, tragic, dramatic, historical, straightforward

Protagonist and Antagonist

The protagonists of the play are the members of the Millimura family, in particular Jimmy and Joe. The antagonists of the play are the white Australians who abuse their power, such as Mr. Neville and Mr. Neal.

Major Conflict

The primary conflict that arises within the play is due to the strained relationships between Aboriginals and white Australian officials, whose Assimilation ideals are actually thinly veiled racist campaigns to displace and disempower Aborigines.


The climax of the play occurs in Act 4 Scene 5, as the Aborigines and the white officials of the Moore River Settlement celebrate Australia Day. Mr. Neville gives a speech that can be considered offensive to the Aboriginal natives, as he commemorates the invasion that occurred and discusses the land as belonging to the white people. In the midst of an angry tirade protesting Neville's speech, Jimmy has a heart attack.



There are many understatements within the dialogue of white Australian officials, who minimize the horrific nature of the experiences of the Aborigines following European invasion.


Allusions to the genocide of natives in Tasmania, and to the Bible.


The imagery of the reservations and the natural landscape of Western Australia.




Use of Dramatic Devices

Perambulant model, which is utilized to show multiple scenes at once.