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These structures for alkanes are made according to the nomenclature system rules set by the IUPAC. 1. The base name indicates the number of carbon atoms present in the longest continuous carbon chain. In this case, Nonane indicates 9 Carbon atoms. 2. The numbering of Carbon atoms starts from the left-hand side. 3. 2,2-dimethyl indicates the presence of two methyl groups, both on carbon number 2. Also, 4,7-diethyl indicates the presence of one ethyl group on carbon number 4 and another ethyl group on carbon number 7.