Chemistry 12th Edition

Published by McGraw-Hill Education
ISBN 10: 0078021510
ISBN 13: 978-0-07802-151-0

Chapter 4 - Reactions in Aqueous Solutions - Questions & Problems - Page 158: 4.4


An arrow pointing to the left means that the reaction will only proceed in the forward direction, while harpoon arrows mean that the reaction can proceed in both directions.

Work Step by Step

Irreversible reactions will only have an arrow pointing in one direction, while situations where the reaction can shift in either direction based on changes in pressure, temperature, or concentration will be represented by harpoon arrows.
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