Human Biology, 14 Edition

Published by McGraw-Hill Education
ISBN 10: 1-25924-574-8
ISBN 13: 978-1-25924-574-9

Chapter 20 - Section 20.2 - Causes and Prevention of Cancer - Check Your Progress - Page 441: 2


A carcinogen is a chemical/physical factor that causes cancer by being carcinogenic. Some cause both initiation and promotion of carcinogenesis. Some viruses common in human habitats are also known to be carcinogenic. The following are some well-known carcinogens: a. Organic chemicals: In tobacco; N-nitrosonornicotine, vinyl chloride and benzo(a)pyrene (suppresses p53 protein). These may cause cancers of larynx, pancreas, esophagus, urinary bladder, kidneys and cervix b Asbestos, nickel, cadmium, benzyl chloride, arsenic, uranium, radon c. Aflatoxin, formaldehyde, aflatoxin, 2-4-d-herbicides, Roundup glyphosate Common cancers--sarcomas, malignant lymphomas, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas Metals, dust,, plastics. b. metals, dust, wood dust, chemical pesticides,

Work Step by Step

The following viruses are also known to be carcinogenic: Hepatitis B Virus ( B & C ). Epstein Barr Virus Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) These viruses cause cervical cancer and liver cancer
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