#### Answer

a. $0.167$
b. $0.393$
c. $0.691$

#### Work Step by Step

Total number of students = 19053000
a. A male student without aid
$p=\frac{8,073,000}{19053000}\times(1-0.606)=0.167$
b. A male student, given that the student has aid
$p=\frac{0.606\times8073000}{0.606\times8073000+0.652\times10980000}=0.393$
c. A female student or a student who receives federal aid
P(female)=$10980000/19053000=0.576$
P(all fed aid)=$\frac{0.448\times0.606\times8073000+0.504\times0.652\times10980000}{19053000}=0.304$
P(female and all fed aid)=$\frac{0.504\times0.652\times10980000}{19053000}=0.189$
P(female or all fed aid)=$0.576+0.304-0.189=0.691$