Kathleen Raine: Poems Literary Elements

Kathleen Raine: Poems Literary Elements

Speaker or Narrator, and Point of View

The poem "Worry About Money" is narrated by a first-person speaker.
The poem "Change" is narrated by a third-person speaker.
The poem "Nocturne" is narrated by an invisible third-person speaker.

Form and Meter

The poem "Nocturne" consists of four alternating stanzas of three and four lines respectively with no consistent rhyme scheme.

Metaphors and Similes


l. 24/25: "the alchemy of the world's dream"

"Worry About Money"

l. 2: "wrestle with my angle"

l. 1: "like a hair shirt"

Alliteration and Assonance


l. 13: "waves beyond the world"

"Worry About Money"
l. 1: "Wearing worry"


"Worry About Money"

It is ironic that the speaker emphasizes the importance of giving and then reveals that they are on the verge of poverty because of their giving (thus putting them in need of donations themselves).


The poem "Nocturne" is an ode.


The poem "Nocturne" is set at night, in the realm of dreams that the speaker imagines as a starry sky full of butterflies.


The general tone in the poem "Worry About Money" is troubled and contemplative, with the last stanza demonstrating new hope in the speaker.

Protagonist and Antagonist

The protagonist of the poem "Worry About Money" is portrayed as a very generous person with an implied strong Christian faith, who is currently in deep financial trouble.

Major Conflict

The major conflict in the poem "Worry About Money" is the speaker's financial situation. They want to continue donating and giving their money away, because they think that this is the right thing to do. Their reality however is that they simply cannot afford to give anymore and are on the brink of poverty themselves. The speaker is unable to fully comprehend this situation and seeks reassurance that their generosity will eventually reward them as well.


The climax of the poem "Worry About Money" happens in the fourth stanza, when the speaker reveals the true extend of their financial situation.



In line 4, the speaker contemplates how peaceful it would be to lie still, implying that for some reason they cannot do this. This content foreshadows the dark nightmares that are just as prevalent in the speaker's dream world as happy dreams are.


There are no instances of understatement in the poems.


"Worry About Money"

The last stanza alludes to the biblical story "The Widow's Olive Oil"

Metonymy and Synecdoche

There are no instances of metonymy or synecdoche in the poems.


"Worry About Money"

In line 4-5, life is personified when the speaker describes how it actively wakes and motivates them.


"Worry About Money"

There is a hyperbole in line 9 when the speaker exclaims that they have absolutely no one to help them.


There are no instances of onomatopoeia in the poems.

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