Bhagavad-Gita

References

  1. ^ a b Davis 2014, p. 2.
  2. ^ a b c Easwaran 2007, pp. 111-122.
  3. ^ Eliot Deutsch & Rohit Dalvi 2004, pp. 60-62.
  4. ^ a b c Sargeant 2009, pp. x-xviii.
  5. ^ a b Eliot Deutsch & Rohit Dalvi 2004, p. 61.
  6. ^ a b c d e Scheepers 2000.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g Raju 1992, p. 211.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Eliot Deutsch & Rohit Dalvi 2004, pp. 61–62.
  9. ^ Eliot Deutsch & Rohit Dalvi 2004, p. 97
  10. ^ Ronald Neufeldt. Robert Neil Minor, ed. Modern Indian Interpreters of the Bhagavad Gita. State University of New York Press. pp. 31–33. ISBN 978-1-4384-1325-9..mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-free a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-registration a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}
  11. ^ M. V. Nadkarni 2016, pp. 15.
  12. ^ a b c Catherine A. Robinson (2014). Interpretations of the Bhagavad-Gita and Images of the Hindu Tradition: The Song of the Lord. Taylor & Francis. pp. viii–ix. ISBN 978-1-134-27891-6.
  13. ^ a b J. A. B. van Buitenen 2013, pp. 6-7, Quote: "Its [Bhagavadgita's] importance as a religious text is demonstrated by its uniquely pan-Hindu influence".
  14. ^ a b Gerald James Larson (2009). Jacob Neusner, ed. World Religions in America, Fourth Edition: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-61164-047-2.
  15. ^ "Mahatma Gandhi | Biography, Accomplishments, & Facts". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-05-16.
  16. ^ Swami Prabhavananda; Christopher Isherwood (2002). Bhagavad-Gita: The Song of God. Signet Clasic. ISBN 978-0-451-52844-5.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t translated by Sir Edwin Arnold (1885), Bhagavadgita (Unabridged ed.), New York, NY: Dover Publications (1993 Reprint), ISBN 0-486-27782-8
  18. ^ Catherine Cornille (2006). Song Divine: Christian Commentaries on the Bhagavad Gītā. Peeters Publishers. ISBN 978-90-429-1769-9.
  19. ^ Sachindra Kumar Majumdar (1991). The Bhagavad Gita: A Scripture for the Future. Asian Humanities Press. ISBN 978-0-89581-885-0.
  20. ^ Braja Dulal Mookherjee (2002). The Essence of Bhagavad Gita. Academic Publishers. p. 18. ISBN 978-81-87504-40-5., Quote: "Bhagavad Gita means Celestial Song."
  21. ^ Sharma 1986, p. ix.
  22. ^ Fowler 2012, p. xxvi
  23. ^ M. V. Nadkarni 2016, pp. 16.
  24. ^ a b c Alexus McLeod (2014). Understanding Asian Philosophy. A&C Black. pp. 168–169. ISBN 978-1-78093-631-4.
  25. ^ David Slavitt (2015). Mahabharata. Northwestern University Press. p. vii. ISBN 978-0-8101-3060-9.
  26. ^ T. A. Gopinatha Rao (1985). Elements of Hindu Iconography. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. xvii, 58–61. ISBN 978-81-208-0878-2.
  27. ^ Lawrence Cohen (1991). Robert L. Brown, ed. Ganesh: Studies of an Asian God. State University of New York Press. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-7914-0656-4.
  28. ^ George M. Williams (2008). Handbook of Hindu Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 304. ISBN 978-0-19-533261-2., Quote: "Veda Vyasa was said to have edited the four Vedas and authored the Puranas and the Mahabharata. Accomplishing all that would require a human who lived several thousand years, so scholars do place the story of his achievements as those of one man in the area of mythology."
  29. ^ Davis 2014, p. 37, Quote: "Textual historians generally prefer terms that undercut any implications of Vyasa's actual authorship. They refer to Vyasa as a mythical or symbolic author of the Mahabharata.".
  30. ^ Upadhyaya 1998, p. 25 with footnote 1.
  31. ^ a b c Swami Vivekananda (1958). The Complete Works of Swami Vivekananda, Volume 4 (12th ed.). Advaita Ashram. pp. 102–104.
  32. ^ Alexus McLeod (2014). Understanding Asian Philosophy. A&C Black. pp. 169–170. ISBN 978-1-78093-631-4.
  33. ^ a b J. A. B. van Buitenen 2013, pp. 5–6
  34. ^ a b Franklin Edgerton (1952). The Bhagavad Gita, Part 2. Harvard University Press. pp. 3–4.
  35. ^ James L. Fitzgerald (1983). "The Great Epic of India as Religious Rhetoric: A Fresh Look at the "Mahābhārata"". Journal of the American Academy of Religion. 51 (4): 615–619, context: 611-630.
  36. ^ Minor 1982, p. xxxiv, Quote: "Therefore, instead of the traditional view of authorship, many scholars have argued that the Gita is not the work of one author but a composite work.".
  37. ^ a b c Arthur Llewellyn Basham (1991). The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism. Oxford University Press. pp. 85–87. ISBN 978-0-19-507349-2.
  38. ^ Fowler 2012, p. xxiv.
  39. ^ J. A. B. van Buitenen 2013, pp. =6, Quote: "ca. 200 BC is a likely date"..
  40. ^ Sharma 1986, p. 3.
  41. ^ a b c Upadhyaya 1998, pp. 16-18.
  42. ^ Moriz Winternitz (1996). A History of Indian Literature: Buddhist literature and Jaina literature. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 258–259. ISBN 978-81-208-0265-0.
  43. ^ Upadhyaya 1998, pp. 17-19.
  44. ^ Étienne Lamotte (1929). Notes sur la Bhagavadgita. Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner. pp. 126–127.
  45. ^ a b c Arthur Llewellyn Basham (1991). The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism. Oxford University Press. pp. 95–96. ISBN 978-0-19-507349-2.
  46. ^ a b c Sargeant 2009, pp. 3-4.
  47. ^ Heather Elgood (2000). Hinduism and the Religious Arts. A&C Black. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-304-70739-3.
  48. ^ a b Fowler 2012, p. xxiv-xxiv.
  49. ^ Davis 2014, p. 3.
  50. ^ James G. Lochtefeld (2001). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 1. The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-8239-3179-8.
  51. ^ Keya Maitra (2018). Philosophy of the Bhagavad Gita: A Contemporary Introduction. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-1-350-04017-5.
  52. ^ a b NV Isaeva (1992), Shankara and Indian Philosophy, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-1281-7, page 35 with footnote 30
  53. ^ a b Sargeant 2009, p. x.
  54. ^ Nicholson 2010, p. 7.
  55. ^ Singh 2005, p. 37.
  56. ^ Nakamura 1950, p. 3.
  57. ^ Flood 1996, pp. 231–232, 238.
  58. ^ Ronald Neufeldt (1986). Robert Neil Minor, ed. Modern Indian Interpreters of the Bhagavad Gita. State University of New York Press. pp. 11–12, 213. ISBN 978-0-88706-297-1.
  59. ^ Coburn, Thomas B. (1984), "'Scripture' in India: Towards a Typology of the Word in Hindu Life", Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 52 (3): 435–59, doi:10.1093/jaarel/52.3.435, JSTOR 1464202
  60. ^ Tapasyananda 1990, p. 1
  61. ^ Swami Prabhavananda (1964). Bhagavad Gita - The Song of God. New American Library. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-1-4474-8104-1.
  62. ^ a b c Upadhyaya 1998, pp. 10-12 with footnote 1 on page 11.
  63. ^ Davis 2014, pp. 39-40.
  64. ^ Minor 1982, p. Li-Lii, Quote: "the Kashmir recension is a later reading of the Gita." (note the different views of F Otto Schrader from those of SK Belvalkar as well as JAB van Buitenen.).
  65. ^ Maitra 2018, pp. 5, 26-30, 143.
  66. ^ Robinson 2006, pp. 69-70, 95-100.
  67. ^ Robinson 2006, p. 95.
  68. ^ Minor 1986, pp. 74-75, 81.
  69. ^ a b Gavin Flood (2004). The Ascetic Self: Subjectivity, Memory and Tradition. Cambridge University Press. pp. 85–89 with notes. ISBN 978-0-521-60401-7.
  70. ^ Robin Gill (2017). Moral Passion and Christian Ethics. Cambridge University Press. pp. 129–130. ISBN 978-1-107-17682-9.
  71. ^ Robert Charles Zaehner (1973). The Bhagavad-gītā. Oxford University Press. pp. 187, 200. ISBN 978-0-19-501666-6.
  72. ^ Nikam, N. A. (1952). "A Note on the Individual and His Status in Indian Thought". Philosophy East and West. University of Hawai'i Press. 2 (3): 254–258. doi:10.2307/1397274.
  73. ^ Franklin Edgerton (1952). The Bhagavad Gita, Part 2. Harvard University Press. pp. 91–92.
  74. ^ Jonardon Ganeri (2007). The Concealed Art of the Soul: Theories of Self and Practices of Truth in Indian Ethics and Epistemology. Oxford University Press. pp. 68–70. ISBN 978-0-19-920241-6.
  75. ^ a b Christopher G. Framarin (2006). "The Desire You Are Required to Get Rid of: A Functionalist Analysis of Desire in the Bhagavadgītā". Philosophy East and West. University of Hawai'i Press. 56 (4): 604–617. JSTOR 4488055.
  76. ^ a b Arthur Llewellyn Basham (1991). The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism. Oxford University Press. pp. 86–87. ISBN 978-0-19-507349-2.
  77. ^ White, David (1971). "Human Perfection in the Bhagavadgita". Philosophy East and West. University of Hawai'i Press. 21 (1): 43–53. doi:10.2307/1397763.
  78. ^ M. V. Nadkarni 2016, pp. 82, 95–96
  79. ^ Franklin Edgerton (1952). The Bhagavad Gita, Part 2. Harvard University Press. pp. 47–48, 73–74, 83–84.
  80. ^ Minor 1986, pp. 38-39, 123-128, 143.
  81. ^ Gavin Flood (2004). The Ascetic Self: Subjectivity, Memory and Tradition. Cambridge University Press. pp. 83–84 with notes. ISBN 978-0-521-60401-7.
  82. ^ a b c d Sargeant 2009, p. xii.
  83. ^ a b Robinson 2006, pp. 92-93, 133-134.
  84. ^ Upadhyaya 1998, pp. 474-475.
  85. ^ Hiltebeitel 2002.
  86. ^ Galvin Flood; Charles Martin (2013). The Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation. W. W. Norton & Company. p. xxvi. ISBN 978-0-393-34513-1.
  87. ^ a b Fowler 2012, pp. xxi-xxii.
  88. ^ a b M. V. Nadkarni 2016, pp. 18-19
  89. ^ Friedrich Otto Schrader (1908). A descriptive catalogue of the Sanskrit manuscripts in the Adyar Library. Adyar Library Oriental Pub. p. 57.
  90. ^ a b c d Minor 1982, p. L-Li, Quote: "The current text of the Bhagavad gita is well-preserved with relatively few variant readings and none quite serious. This is especially remarkable in the light of the numerous variants for the remainder of the Mahabharata, some of which are quite serious. Secondary insertions are found in individual manuscripts of the Gita, but these are clearly secondary. The number of stanzas in the Gita is 700, a number confirmed by Shankara, and possibly deliberately chosen in order to prevent interpolations."
  91. ^ Gambhirananda 1997, p. xvii.
  92. ^ a b c d Minor 1982, p. L-Li.
  93. ^ a b Galvin Flood; Charles Martin (2013). The Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation. W. W. Norton & Company. p. xxviii. ISBN 978-0-393-34513-1.
  94. ^ Coburn 1991, p. 27.
  95. ^ a b c Sargeant 2009, p. 8.
  96. ^ Egenes 2003, p. 4.
  97. ^ Alexus McLeod (2014). Understanding Asian Philosophy. A&C Black. p. 136. ISBN 978-1-78093-631-4.
  98. ^ Fowler 2012, p. xxii
  99. ^ a b c d Davis 2014, pp. 1-2.
  100. ^ Kriyananda, Goswami (1994). The Bhagavad Gita (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: The Temple of Kriya Yoga. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-9613099-3-0.
  101. ^ Eliot Deutsch & Rohit Dalvi 2004, pp. 59–61.
  102. ^ Galvin Flood; Charles Martin (2013). The Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation. W. W. Norton & Company. p. xv-xvi. ISBN 978-0-393-34513-1.
  103. ^ Jan Gonda (1935). "The Javanese version of the Bhagavadgita". Tijdschrift Voor Indische Taal, Land- En Volkenkunde. Koninklijk Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen. LXXV: 36–82.
  104. ^ Amara Srisuchat (2005). "Mahabharata in Art and Literature in Thailand". Indian Literature. 49 (1): 113. JSTOR 23346580.
  105. ^ Bose 1986, p. 71
  106. ^ Maitra 2018, p. 39.
  107. ^ Chidbhavananda 1997, p. 33
  108. ^ Chinmayananda 1998, p. 3
  109. ^ Ranganathananda 2000, pp. 15–25
  110. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Easwaran 2007, pp. 5-6.
  111. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Maitra 2018, pp. vii-viii.
  112. ^ a b Easwaran 2007, pp. 71-82.
  113. ^ a b c Sharma 1986, pp. xiv-xv.
  114. ^ a b c Easwaran 2007, pp. 83-98.
  115. ^ Sharma 1986, pp. xv-xvi.
  116. ^ Sargeant 2009, p. xx.
  117. ^ Sargeant 2009, p. xxviii.
  118. ^ a b c d Easwaran 2007, pp. 99-110.
  119. ^ Fowler 2012, pp. 50-63, 66-70.
  120. ^ Galvin Flood; Charles Martin (2013). The Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation. W. W. Norton & Company. p. xix. ISBN 978-0-393-34513-1.
  121. ^ Galvin Flood; Charles Martin (2013). The Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation. W. W. Norton & Company. p. xxi. ISBN 978-0-393-34513-1.
  122. ^ Arthur Llewellyn Basham (1991). The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism. Oxford University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-19-507349-2.
  123. ^ Miller 1986, p. 59.
  124. ^ Easwaran 2007, pp. 123-132.
  125. ^ Fowler 2012, pp. 91-103.
  126. ^ Easwaran 2007, p. 139.
  127. ^ Radhakrishnan 1993, p. 187.
  128. ^ Miller 1986, p. 63.
  129. ^ Sargeant 2009, p. 272.
  130. ^ Franklin Edgerton (1952). The Bhagavad Gita, Part 2. Harvard University Press. p. 118.
  131. ^ Galvin Flood; Charles Martin (2013). The Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-393-34513-1.
  132. ^ Easwaran 2007, pp. 133-146.
  133. ^ Fowler 2012, pp. 106-120.
  134. ^ Easwaran 2007, pp. 147-156.
  135. ^ a b Easwaran 2007, pp. 157-168.
  136. ^ a b Easwaran 2007, pp. 169-178.
  137. ^ Southgate 2005, p. 246.
  138. ^ Max Bernhard Weinsten, Welt- und Lebensanschauungen, Hervorgegangen aus Religion, Philosophie und Naturerkenntnis ("World and Life Views, Emerging From Religion, Philosophy and Nature") (1910), p. 213: "Wir werden später sehen, daß die Indier auch den Pandeismus gelehrt haben. Der letzte Zustand besteht in dieser Lehre im Eingehen in die betreffende Gottheit, Brahma oder Wischnu. So sagt in der Bhagavad-Gîtâ Krishna-Wischnu, nach vielen Lehren über ein vollkommenes Dasein."
  139. ^ Easwaran 2007, pp. 179-190.
  140. ^ a b Easwaran 2007, pp. 191-202.
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  144. ^ Moffitt, John (1977). "The Bhagavad Gita as Way-Shower to the Transcendental". Theological Studies. SAGE Publications. 38 (2): 323, context: 316–331. doi:10.1177/004056397703800204.
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  146. ^ Fowler 2012, pp. 216-221.
  147. ^ Arthur Llewellyn Basham (1991). The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism. Oxford University Press. pp. 88–89. ISBN 978-0-19-507349-2.
  148. ^ Miller 1986, p. 12.
  149. ^ a b Easwaran 2007, pp. 221-228.
  150. ^ Miller 1986, pp. 12-13, 59.
  151. ^ J. A. B. van Buitenen 2013, pp. =35-36.
  152. ^ Maitra 2018, pp. 17-18.
  153. ^ Easwaran 2007, pp. 229-234.
  154. ^ Franklin Edgerton (1952). The Bhagavad Gita, Part 2. Harvard University Press. pp. 44-45 with footnotes, context: pp. 30-54 (Part 2).
  155. ^ Easwaran 2007, pp. 235-242.
  156. ^ Franklin Edgerton (1952). The Bhagavad Gita, Part 2. Harvard University Press. pp. 82-83 (Part 2), 149-153 (Part 1).
  157. ^ a b Fowler 2012, pp. 253-257.
  158. ^ Easwaran 2007, pp. 243-250.
  159. ^ Franklin Edgerton (1952). The Bhagavad Gita, Part 2. Harvard University Press. pp. 70-71 (Part 2, Chapter IX).
  160. ^ a b Easwaran 2007, pp. 251-265.
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  162. ^ Kapila Vatsyayan; Bettina Bäumer; Ramesh Chandra Sharma (1988). Kalātattvakośa. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 79–81, 88. ISBN 978-81-208-1917-7.
  163. ^ R. D. Ranade (1982). Mysticism in Maharashtra: Indian Mysticism. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 67–68. ISBN 978-81-208-0576-7.
  164. ^ a b c d Fowler 2012, pp. xxxiii-xxiv.
  165. ^ a b c Zaehner 1969, p. 30-32, 36-41.
  166. ^ a b Fowler 2012, pp. xxxiii-xxv.
  167. ^ Edwin F. Bryant (2007). Krishna: A Sourcebook. Oxford University Press. pp. 312–315. ISBN 978-0-19-972431-4.
  168. ^ Edgerton 1952, pp. 44-45 with footnote 1.
  169. ^ Fowler 2012, p. xxxvi.
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  171. ^ Paul Deussen (1980). Sixty Upaniṣads of the Veda. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 409–410. ISBN 978-81-208-1468-4.
  172. ^ [a] Atman, Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford University Press (2012), Quote: "1. real self of the individual; 2. a person's soul";[b] John Bowker (2000), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0192800947, See entry for Atman;[c] WJ Johnson (2009), A Dictionary of Hinduism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0198610250, See entry for Atman (self).
  173. ^ John C. Plott et al. (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120801585, page 63, Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism and Buddhism".
  174. ^ [a] Anatta, Encyclopædia Britannica (2013), Quote: "Anatta in Buddhism, the doctrine that there is in humans no permanent, underlying soul. The concept of anatta, or anatman, is a departure from the Hindu belief in atman (“the self”).";[b] Steven Collins (1994), Religion and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, ISBN 978-0-7914-2217-5, page 64; Quote: "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence.";[c] Edward Roer (Translator), Shankara's Introduction, p. 2, at Google Books to Brihad Aranyaka Upanishad, pages 2-4;[d] KN Jayatilleke (2010), Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, ISBN 978-8120806191, pages 246-249, from note 385 onwards;[e] Bruno Nagel (2000), Roy Perrett (editor), Philosophy of Religion: Indian Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112, page 33, Quote: "The dispute with Buddhists, who do not accept an imperishable Self, gives the Atman schools [Vedanta, Kashmir Shaivism] a chance to articulate the intellectual aspects of their way to meditative liberation".
  175. ^ Fowler 2012, pp. xxxv, xxxvii-xix.
  176. ^ a b c Fowler 2012, pp. xxxix-xL.
  177. ^ a b Zaehner 1969, p. 13-15, 254.
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  179. ^ Sargeant 2009, p. xvii.
  180. ^ a b Fowler 2012, pp. xL.
  181. ^ Fowler 2012, pp. xliii–iv.
  182. ^ a b Fowler 2012, pp. xLiii–xLiv.
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  189. ^ a b Fowler 2012, p. xLii-xLiii.
  190. ^ Cornille 2006, p. 2
  191. ^ Sampatkumaran 1985, p. xxiii
  192. ^ Fowler 2012, p. xxii-xxiv, xLii-xLiii.
  193. ^ Fowler 2012, p. xL-xlii, 89–93.
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  197. ^ Fowler 2012, p. 72–90.
  198. ^ Sargeant 2009, pp. 201–242.
  199. ^ Fowler 2012, p. xLi-xlii.
  200. ^ Sivananda 1995, p. xvii
  201. ^ Gambhirananda 1997, p. xx, 16
  202. ^ Minor 1986, p. 131, 194-196.
  203. ^ Minor 1986, p. 123.
  204. ^ Trevor Leggett (1995). Realization of the Supreme Self: The Bhagavad Gītā Yoga's. Routledge. pp. 48, 204–205, 222–231. ISBN 978-0-7103-0433-9.
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