Chemistry: The Central Science (13th Edition)

Published by Prentice Hall
ISBN 10: 0321910419
ISBN 13: 978-0-32191-041-7

Chapter 6 - Electronic Structure of Atoms - Additional Exercises - Page 254: 6.102b


The condensed electron configuration of $Ga$ is $$Ga: [Ar]4s^23d^{10}4p^1$$ There is 1 unpaired electron.

Work Step by Step

1) The nearest noble gas of lower atomic number of $Ga$ is $Ar$. 2) Looking the periodic table, the atomic number of $Ga$ is 31, which means it has 31 electrons. The last rows ends with the atomic number 18, so $Ga$ has 18 inner-shell electrons. That leaves it with 13 outer-shell electrons. $Ga$ belongs to the 4th row, so its outer shell is the 4th shell. 3) These 13 outer-shell electrons are distributed as follows: - The first two go to the $4s$ subshell. - The next 10 go to the $3d$ subshell. - The last one go to the $4p$ subshell. Therefore, the condensed electron configuration of $Ga$ is $$Ga: [Ar]4s^23d^{10}4p^1$$ 4) All the inner shells, the $4s$ subshell, and the $3d$ subshell are completely filled, so all of their electrons are paired. There are 1 electron in subshell $4p$ and 1 electron is not enough to make a pair in any case. Therefore, there is 1 unpaired electron.
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