Chemistry: Molecular Approach (4th Edition)

Published by Pearson
ISBN 10: 0134112830
ISBN 13: 978-0-13411-283-1

Chapter 25 - Exercises - Page 1153: 2


They can lose the d electrons without high energy penalty.

Work Step by Step

Unlike main-group metals that tend to exhibit only one oxidation state, the transition metals often exhibit a variety of oxidation states since they can lose the d electrons without high energy penalty. This can be explained by taking manganese as an example: the highest oxidation state of manganese is \[+7\], which corresponds to loss of all the electrons in the \[4s\] and \[3d\] orbitals, leaving the noble gas electron configuration. It also exhibits \[M{{n}^{2+}}\] by the loss of two electrons present in the \[~4s\] orbital.
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