Chemistry: Molecular Approach (4th Edition)

Published by Pearson
ISBN 10: 0134112830
ISBN 13: 978-0-13411-283-1

Chapter 18 - Exercises - Page 880: 28


Processes a) and c) are non-spontaneous

Work Step by Step

Processes that cannot take place without outside intervention are spontaneous processes. Processes a) and c) need outside intervention to occur. A bike going uphill requires applying energy, and obtaining hydrogen from water requires combustion at high temperatures and pressure. So, they are non-spontaneous. But not all non-spontaneous processes are impossible.
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