## Elementary Statistics (12th Edition)

If $\hat{p}$ is known:$n=\frac{z^2_{\frac{\alpha}{2}}\cdot \hat{p}\cdot (1-\hat{p})}{E^2}.$ If $\hat{p}$ is unknown:$n=\frac{z^2_{\frac{\alpha}{2}}\cdot0.25}{E^2}.$ a) Here, $\hat{p}$ is unknown, hence $n=\frac{1.28^2\cdot0.25}{0.03^2}=456.$ b)Here, $\hat{p}$ is known, it is 84%=0.84, hence $n=\frac{1.28^2\cdot(0.84)\cdot(1-0.84)}{0.03^2}=245.$ c)This survey uses a convenience sample, whoch doesn't represent the entire population correctly.