## Precalculus: Concepts Through Functions, A Unit Circle Approach to Trigonometry (3rd Edition)

$-3$
As we can see by the attached graph (please refer to the green line), as $x$ gets closer and closer to $-1$ from the left and the right, the value of the function (the $y$-value) gets closer and closer to $-3$. Thus the limit is $-3$.