Precalculus (6th Edition) Blitzer

$1$; dividing the numerator and denominator by $4$.
Comparing the given equation $r=\frac{12}{4-4cos\theta}$ with the standard form (b), we can see that the equation is not in standard form because the constant term in the denominator is not $1$. The equation can be written in standard form by: dividing the numerator and denominator by $4$.