## University Calculus: Early Transcendentals (3rd Edition)

Conversion of polar coordinates and Cartesian coordinates are as follows: a)$r^2=x^2+y^2 \implies r=\sqrt {x^2+y^2}$ b) $\tan \theta =\dfrac{y}{x} \implies \theta =\tan^{-1} (\dfrac{y}{x})$ c) $x=r \cos \theta$ d) $y=r \sin \theta$ As we know that $\sec \theta=\dfrac{1}{\cos \theta}$ Therefore, $r \cos \theta =-3 \implies x=-3$ This shows a vertical line 3 units to the left of the y-axis.