Calculus 8th Edition

See p.37. (a) Shift the graph of $y =f(x)$ up 8 units. (b) Shift the graph of $y =f(x)$ left 8 units. (c) 1. Vertically stretch the graph of $y =f(x)$ by a factor of 2. 2. Then raise that graph 1 unit upward. (d) 1. Shift the graph of $y =f(x)$ right 2 units 2. Then shift that graph 2 units downward. (e) Reflect the graph of $y =f(x)$ about the x-axis. (f) 1. Reflect the graph of $y =f(x)$ about the x-axis. 2. Then raise that graph 3 units upward.