Scarface (1932 Film)

Introduction

Scarface (also known as Scarface: The Shame of the Nation and The Shame of a Nation) is a 1932 American pre-Code gangster film starring Paul Muni as Antonio "Tony" Camonte. It was produced by Howard Hughes and Howard Hawks and directed by Hawks.[3] The story is based on Armitage Trail's 1929 novel of the same title, which is loosely based on the rise and fall of Al Capone.[4] The film features Ann Dvorak as Camonte's sister, and also stars Karen Morley, Osgood Perkins, and Boris Karloff. The plot centers on gang warfare and police intervention when rival gangs fight over control of Chicago. A version of the Saint Valentine's Day Massacre is also depicted.

The film was the basis for the Brian De Palma 1983 film of the same name starring Al Pacino.[5]

Plot

In 1920s Chicago, Italian immigrant Antonio "Tony" Camonte acts on the orders of Italian mafioso John "Johnny" Lovo and kills "Big" Louis Costillo, the leading crime boss of the city's South Side. Johnny then takes control of the South Side with Tony as his key lieutenant, selling large amounts of illegal beer to speakeasies and muscling in on bars run by rival outfits. However, Johnny repeatedly warns Tony not to mess with the Irish gangs led by O'Hara, who runs the North Side. Tony soon starts ignoring these orders, shooting up bars belonging to O'Hara, and attracting the attention of the police and rival gangsters. Johnny realizes that Tony is out of control and has ambitions to take his position.

Meanwhile, Tony pursues Johnny's girlfriend Poppy with increasing confidence. At first, she is dismissive of him but pays him more attention as his reputation rises. At one point, she visits his "gaudy" apartment where he shows her his view of an electric billboard advertising Cook's Tours, which features the slogan that has inspired him: "The World is Yours."

Tony eventually decides to declare war and take over the North Side. He sends the coin flipping Guino Rinaldo, one of his best men and also his close friend, to kill O'Hara in a florist's shop that he uses as his base. This brings heavy retaliation from the North Side gangs, now led by Gaffney and armed with Thompson submachine guns—a weapon that instantly captures Tony's dark imagination. Tony leads his own forces to destroy the North Side gangs and take over their market, even to the point of impersonating police officers to gun down several rivals in a garage. Tony also kills Gaffney as he makes a strike at a bowling alley. Johnny believes that his protégé is trying to take over, and he arranges for Tony to be assassinated while driving in his car. Tony manages to escape this attack, and he and Guino kill Johnny, leaving Tony as the undisputed boss of the city.

Tony's actions have provoked a public outcry, and the police are slowly closing in. Then he sees his beloved sister Francesca ("Cesca") with Guino, and kills his friend in a jealous rage—before the couple can inform him of their secret marriage. His sister runs out distraught and tells the police what he has done. The police move to arrest Tony for Guino's murder, and Tony holes up in his house and prepares to shoot it out. Cesca comes back, planning to kill him, but ends up helping him to fight the police. Moments later, however, she is killed by a stray bullet. As the apartment fills with tear gas, Tony leaves down the stairs, and the police confront him. Tony pleads for his life, but then makes a break for it, only to be gunned down by the police. Outside, the electric billboard blazes "The World is Yours."

Cast
  • Paul Muni as Antonio "Tony" Camonte
  • Ann Dvorak as Francesca "Cesca" Camonte
  • George Raft as Guino Rinaldo
  • Osgood Perkins as John "Johnny" Lovo
  • Karen Morley as Poppy
  • Boris Karloff as Tom Gaffney
  • C. Henry Gordon as Inspector Ben Guarino
  • Vince Barnett as Angelo
  • Purnell Pratt as Garston
  • Tully Marshall as Managing editor
  • Inez Palange as Mrs. Camonte
  • Edwin Maxwell as Chief of Detectives
  • Harry J. Vejar as Big Louis Costillo
  • Howard Hawks as Man on Bed (uncredited)
Production

Background and development

Multimillionaire business tycoon Howard Hughes, who occasionally dabbled in film making, wanted to make a box office hit after his success with the film The Front Page. Gangster films had become popular in the early 1930s in the age of Prohibition and Hughes wanted to make a gangster film based on the life of Al Capone that would be superior to all others in the genre. He was strongly advised against making the film, because there had been one hundred gangster films made since sound movies had been invented. Little Caesar and The Public Enemy were already popular films; Warner Bros. claimed that there was nothing new that could be done with the gangster genre. Furthermore, censors in the industry were becoming concerned with the immense amount of glamorization of the dangerous and illicit life of a gangster in film. Despite all this, Hughes bought the rights to the Armitage Trail's novel Scarface. Hughes managed to hire on Fred Pasley, a New York reporter and authority on Capone, as a technical advisor. Howard Hughes asked Ben Hecht if he would write the screenplay.[6]:84[7]:70 Suspicious of Hughes as an employer, Hecht strictly requested that he would only work for him if was paid one thousand dollars every day at six o'clock. Hecht claimed that this way, he would only waste a day's labor if Hughes turned out to be a fraud.[8] Hecht and Hawks worked together well, both interested in the idea of portraying the Capones as if they were the House of Borgia, including echoing and augmenting a subtle hint of incest between the main character and his sister even present in Trail's novel.[6]:85 The film was adapted by Hecht in only eleven days in January 1931 from Armitage Trail's 1929 novel Scarface, and additional writing was provided by W. R. Burnett, John Lee Mahin, Seton I. Miller, and Fred Pasley related to continuity and dialogue.[7]:71[6]:85 Trail (pseudonym for Maurice Coons) wrote for a number of detective story magazines during the early 20s, but died of a heart attack at the age of 28, shortly before the release of the 1932 film.[9]

Howard Hughes wanted prominent film director Howard Hawks to direct and co-produce the film. Hughes admired Hawks' Film The Dawn Patrol, even though he had previously attempted to prevent the release of the film claiming that Hawks had ripped of his film Hell's Angels. This job offer came as a surprise to Hawks as the only encounters with Hughes that he had, had been poor, including a period of time when Hughes was suing him because he had become interest in a play that Hughes had already bought the rights to for filming. Hughes attempted to persuade Hawks during a game of golf. Hughes promised to drop the lawsuit, and by the eighteenth hole, Hawks was more willing to direct the film. Hawks became even more convinced to work on the film when he found out that Ben Hecht would be the head writer.[7]:71-72 With a script written and a director chosen, Hughes needed to find an actor to play the lead role of Tony Camonte. After having seen him on Broadway, talent agent Al Rosen suggested that Hughes consider Paul Muni for the lead role. When Muni was first asked if he would be interested in the role of Tony, he declined, feeling that he wasn't physically suited for the role. After reading the script, his wife Bella urged him that it would be a good opportunity.[7]:72 After a test run in New York, Hughes, Hawks, and Hecht approved Muni for the role.[7]:74

Ties to Capone

Both the film and novel are loosely based upon the life of Al Capone, whose nickname was "Scarface". In his memoir about his time as a young reporter in Chicago, Gaily, Gaily (1963), excerpted as “No Room for Vice" in Playboy, January 1959, Ben Hecht reminisced about having known “Big Jim” Colosimo socially and briefly meeting a young Capone. Hecht also said that Capone sent two of his men to visit him to make sure that the film was not based on Capone's life.[10] He told them that the character of "Scarface" was a parody of numerous people with whom Hecht was acquainted. He claimed that the reason that he called it "Scarface" without it apparently being about Capone was so that more people would want to go see it and the two left him alone.[11] The introduction for the film's screening on Turner Classic Movies by Robert Osbourne found on the DVD even stated that Hecht convinced the men to work as consultants for him.[12]

The most obvious references to Capone and actual events from the Chicago gang wars — especially to audiences at the time of the film's release:

  • Al Capone had a large, visible scar on the side of his face, like the Paul Muni character. We also learn in the film that the Muni character got the scar in a barroom brawl. Capone received his scar in a similar way: in a bar fight at the Harvard Inn after making a pass at a patron's sister.[13]
  • Tony kills his boss "Big Louis" Costillo in the lobby of his club; Capone was involved in the murder of his first boss "Big Jim" Colosimo in 1920.[14][15]
  • Rival boss O'Hara is murdered in his flower shop; Capone's men murdered Dean O'Bannion in his flower shop in 1924.[6]:86
  • Gaffney leads a caravan of cars in a drive-by shooting at Tony in a restaurant; Capone's rival Hymie Weiss did the same thing to him in 1927.
  • Johnny Lovo attempts to get Tony killed in a car chase; Capone's ally Angelo Genna was murdered following a car chase in 1925.
  • The shooting murder of seven men in a garage, with two of the gunmen costumed as police officers, mirrors the St. Valentine's Day Massacre of 1929. Also, the leader of this rival gang in the film (Karloff) narrowly escapes the shooting, which is precisely what happened to gang leader Bugs Moran in the actual St. Valentine's Day Massacre.[14][16][17]

Capone was rumored to have liked the film so much that he owned a print of it.[18] Capone would be imprisoned in Atlanta for tax evasion during the film's release.[6]:86

Issues with censors

Will Hays was the chairman of the Motion Pictures Producers and Distributors of America (MPPDA) at the time. This board later became known as the Hays Office. The Hays Office was outraged by Scarface when they screened it. They called for scenes to be deleted, scenes to be added that condemn gangsterism, and a different ending. They believed that Tony's death at the end of the film was too glorifying. In addition to the violence, the MPPDA felt that an inappropriate relationship between the main character and his sister was too overt, especially in one scene where he holds her in his arms after he slaps her and tears her dress; they ordered this scene be deleted. Hughes, in order to receive the MPPDA's approval, deleted some of the more violent scenes, added a prologue to condemn gangsterism, and wrote a new ending.[7]:75[6]:88 Hughes was instructed to change the title to The Menace to clarify the subject of the film; after month of haggling, he compromised by titling it Scarface, Shame of the Nation.[6]:89

The original script had Tony's mother loving her son unconditionally, accepting his lifestyle, and even accepting money and gifts from him. In addition, there was a politician who, despite campaigning against gangsters on the podium, is shown partying with them after hours. The script ending had Tony staying in the building, unaffected by tear gas and a multitude of bullets fired at him. It is not until the building is on fire that Tony is forced to exit the building, guns blazing. He is sprayed with police gun fire but appears unfazed. Upon noticing the police officer who's been arresting him throughout the film, he fires at him, only to hear a single "click" noise implying that his gun is empty. He is then killed after being shot several times by said police officer. A repeated clicking noise is heard on the soundtrack implying that he was still attempting to fire while he was dying.[19]

After repeated demands for a script rewrite from the Hays Office, Hughes ordered Hawks to shoot the film, "Screw the Hays Office, make it as realistic, and grisly as possible."

Two other prominent gangster films produced about the same time but released over a year earlier to huge success were Little Caesar (January 1931) and The Public Enemy (April 1931). As is the case with Scarface, both of these films were also based on earlier novels.

Filming

Howard Hughes remained off set as to not interfere with the filming of the movie. Hughes urged Hawks to make the film as visually exciting as possible by adding car chases and crashes and machine gun fire.[7]:75 Hawks shot the film at three different locations: Metropolitan Studios, Harold Lloyd Studios and the Mayan Theater in Los Angeles. Shooting took three months with the cast and crew working seven days a week. Several accidents happened on the set. Harold Lloyd's brother, Gaylord, lost an eye when he visited the set and was accidentally shot with live ammunition. Raft also received a head injury during the death scene of his character when he accidentally hit the door frame while he was slumping to the floor.[20] For the most violent scene of the film in the Camonte's restaurant, Hawks cleared the set to avoid harming extras and then had the set fired on by machine guns. The actors acted out the scene in front of a screen with the shooting projected in the back, so as everyone crowded under the tables in the restaurant, it looked like the room was simultaneously under fire.[6]:87

Alternate ending

The first version of the film (Version A) was completed on September 8, 1931, but censors would not allow its release because of concerns that it glorified the gangster lifestyle and showed too much violence. Several scenes had to be edited, the subtitle "The Shame of the Nation" as well as a text introduction had to be added, and the ending had to be modified. Paul Muni was unable to re-film the ending in 1931 due his work on Broadway. To combat this Hawks used a body double. The body double was mainly filmed through shadows and long shots in order to mask the fact that Muni was not in the ending of the film.[7]:75

The alternate ending (Version B) differs from the original ending in the manner that Tony is caught and in which he dies. Unlike the original ending in which Tony escapes the police and dies after getting shot several times, the alternate ending starts with Tony reluctantly handing himself over to the police. After the encounter, Tony's face is not shown again. A scene follows in which a judge is addressing Tony during sentencing. The next scene is the finale, in which Tony (seen from a bird's eye view) is brought to the gallows, where he is finally put to an end by being hanged.

However, Version B still did not pass the New York censors. Howard Hughes issued a statement to the press which helped him received support of the press. The New York Herald-Tribune praised Hughes for his courage to stand up against censors. Howard Hughes disowned the censored film and finally in 1932 released Version A—with the added text introduction—in states that lacked strict censors (Hughes also attempted to take the New York censors to court). This 1932 release version led to bona-fide box office status and positive critical reviews. Hughes was successful in subsequent lawsuits against the boards that censored the film.[7]:76[21] Hughes also made an attempt to release the film under the title "The Scar" when the original title was disallowed by the Hays office.[22]

Motifs

The use of playful motifs throughout the film showcased Howard Hawks' unorthodox sense of humor he expressed through his directing.[14] In the bowling alley scene, where rival gang leader Tom Gaffney was murdered, when Gaffney throws the ball, the shot remains on the last standing bowling pin, which falls to represent the death of kingpin Tom Gaffney. In that same scene, before the death of Gaffney, a shot shows an "X" on the scoreboard, foreshadowing that Gaffney would die.[23][14] Hawks used the "X" foreshadowing technique 15-20 times throughout the film (seen first in the opening credits) that was chiefly associated with death appearing many times (but not all) whenever a death is portrayed; the motif shows up in numerous places, most prominently as Tony's "X" scar on his left cheek.[4] At the end of the film, a sign flashes, "The World is Yours", as Camonte is gunned down by the police.[14] According to Robert Warshow, the ending scene represents how the world is not ours, but not his either and the death of the gangster momentarily releases us from the idea of the concept of success and the need to succeed.[24] The motifs in the film serve to mock the life of the gangster.[14]

Cultural references

The serious play that Tony and his friends go to see, leaving at the end of Act 2, is John Colton and Clemence Randolph's Rain, based on W. Somerset Maugham's story "Miss Sadie Thompson". The play opened on Broadway in 1922 and ran throughout the 1920s. (A film version of the play, also titled Rain and starring Joan Crawford, was released by United Artists the same year as Scarface.)[25]

Historical references

Though fairly inconspicuous in the film, and unnoticed by most viewers, the Capone family was meant to be partially modeled after the Italo-Spanish Borgia family. This was most prominent thought the subtle and arguably incestuous relationship that Tony Comonte and his sister shared.[6]:85

Source music

The tune that Tony whistles twice in the film is the sextet from Gaetano Donizetti’s popular opera Lucia di Lammermoor.[4] The song Cesca sings while playing the piano is "Wreck of the Old 97".[26]

Release

Scarface was released in theatres on April 9, 1932. The film was released on DVD on May 22, 2007, and again on August 28, 2012, in celebration of the 100th anniversary of Universal Studios, by Universal Pictures Home Entertainment.[27]

Reception

Audience reception was generally positive.[7]:75 However, at the time of release in 1932, there was a general public outcry about the film and the gangster genre in general which negatively affected box office earnings of the film. The studios was forced to add "The Shame of the Nation" to the title, because of the audience perception that the film glorified gangsterism. Several cities and states refused to show the film and eventually Howard Hughes removed the film from circulation.[14][4]

On the review aggregate website Rotten Tomatoes, Scarface holds a 100% "Fresh" rating with all 27 reviews being positive.[28]

Legacy

Howard Hawks cited Scarface as one of his favorite works and the film was an subject of pride for Howard Hughes. Hughes locked the film up in his vaults a few years after it released, refusing many profitable offers to distribute the film or to buy its rights. After his death in 1976, filmmakers were able to gain access to the rights to the film which sparked the 1983 remake starring Al Pacino.[7]:76

Paul Muni's performance in Scarface contributed greatly to his rapid accent into his acclaimed film career.[7]:74 Paul Muni received significant accolades for his performance as Tony Camonte. Critics praised Muni for his robust and fierce performance.[7]:74 Al Pacino stated that he was greatly inspired by Paul Muni and that Muni influenced his own performance in the 1983 Scarface remake.[29]

In 1994, Scarface was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".[30] The character of Tony Camonte ranked at number 47 on AFI's 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains list.[31]

The film launched Raft's lengthy career as a leading man. Raft, in the film's second lead, had learned to flip a coin without looking at it, a trait of his character, and he made a strong impression in the comparatively sympathetic but colorful role (It was Howard Hawks' idea to get Raft to use this in the film to camouflage his lack of acting experience).[32] A reference is made in Raft's later role as gangster Spats Columbo in Some Like it Hot (1959), wherein he asks a fellow gangster (who is flipping a coin) "Where did you pick up that cheap trick?"[33]

The film was named the best American sound film by critic and director Jean-Luc Godard in Cahiers du Cinéma.[34][35]

In June 2008, the American Film Institute revealed its "Ten Top Ten"—the best ten films in ten "classic" American film genres—after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. Scarface was acknowledged as the sixth best in the gangster film genre. The 1983 version was placed 10th, making Scarface the only film to make the same "10 Top 10" list as its remake.[36]

Related films

Remake

After the rights for Scarface were obtained after the death of Howard Hughes, Brian de Palma released a remake of the film in 1983 featuring Al Pacino as Scarface. The film was set in contemporary Miami and is known for the graphic violence and obscene language, uncharacteristic of the 1932 film.[7]:76 The 2003 DVD "Anniversary Edition" limited edition box set of the 1983 film included a copy of its 1932 counterpart. At the end of the 1983 film, a title reading "This film is dedicated to Howard Hawks and Ben Hecht" appears over the final shot.[37][38]

Associated films

Universal announced in 2011 that the studio is developing a new version of Scarface. The studio claims that the new film is neither a sequel nor a remake, but will take elements from both this and the 1983 version, including the basic premise of a man who becomes a kingpin in his quest for the American Dream. Martin Bregman produced the 1983 remake, and he will produce this new version, as well.[39] David Ayer will write the screenplay.[40] On August 11, 2016, it was announced that Antoine Fuqua is in talks to direct the remake.[41] On February 10, 2017, Fuqua left the remake and the Coen brothers are rewriting the script.[42]

Scarface has been associated with other films of the classic sound gangster films era. Scarface is often associated with other Pre-Code gangster films released in the early 1930s such as The Doorway to Hell (1930), Little Caesar (film) (1931) and The Public Enemy (1931).[43] According to Fran Mason of the University of Winchester, Scarface is more similar to the film The Roaring Twenties than it's early 1930s gangster film contemporaries, because of its excessiveness.[44]:24

See also
  • List of films with a 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes, a film review aggregator website
References
  1. ^ "SCARFACE (A)". British Board of Film Classification. May 7, 1932. Archived from the original on May 14, 2015. Retrieved May 13, 2015. 
  2. ^ Balio, Tino (2009). United Artists: The Company Built by the Stars. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-23004-3.  p. 111
  3. ^ "Scareface (1932)". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 11, 2017. 
  4. ^ a b c d Dirks, Tom. "Scarface: The Shame of the Nation". Filmsite Movie Review. American Movie Classics Company. Retrieved 15 May 2018. 
  5. ^ "Scareface (1983)". Turner Classic Movies. Atlanta: Turner Broadcasting System (Time Warner). Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 11, 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Clarens, Carlos (1980). Crime Movies: From Griffith to the Godfather and Beyond. Toronto: George J. McLeod Ltd. ISBN 039301262 Check |isbn= value: length (help). 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Thomas, Tony (1985). Howard Hughes in Hollywood. Secaucus, NJ: Citadel Press. ISBN 0806509708. 
  8. ^ Hecht, Ben (1954). A Child of the Century. New York: Simon and Schuster. pp. 486–487. 
  9. ^ Trail, Armitage. Scarface. Dell. (1959). foreword
  10. ^ Hecht, Ben (1954). A Child of the Century. Simon and Schuster. p. 487. 
  11. ^ "Scarface (1932)". Film Article. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 15 May 2018. 
  12. ^ Fraley, Jason. "Scarface: The Shame of a Nation". The Film Spectrum. Retrieved 15 May 2018. 
  13. ^ Bergreen, Laurence (1994). Capone: The Man and the Era. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 49. ISBN 0671744569. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g Langman, Larry; Finn, Daniel (1995). A Guide to American Crime Films of the Thirties. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. pp. 227–228. ISBN 0313295328. 
  15. ^ "How Did Big Jim Colosimo Get Killed?". National Crime Syndicate. National Crime Syndicate. Retrieved 24 May 2018. 
  16. ^ O'Brien, John. "The St. Valentine's Day Massacre". Chicago Tribune. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 24 May 2018. 
  17. ^ "St. Valentine's Day Massacre". History. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved 24 May 2018. 
  18. ^ Mcadams, William (1990). Ben Hecht: The man behind the legend. Scribner. p. 128. ISBN 0-684-18980-1. 
  19. ^ Black, Gregory (1994). Hollywood Censored. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-45299-6. 
  20. ^ McCarthy, Todd (2000). Howard Hawks: The Grey Fox of Hollywood. Grove Press. pp. 122–56. ISBN 0-8021-3740-7. 
  21. ^ "Cinema: The New Pictures: Apr. 18, 1932". TIME. Archived from the original on October 18, 2011. 
  22. ^ Hagemann, E.R. (1984). "Scarface: The Art of Hollywood, Not "The Shame of a Nation"". The Journal of Popular Culture (Summer): 30–40. 
  23. ^ Phillips, Gene D. (1999). Major Film Directors of the American and British Cinema (Revised ed.). Associated University Presses. p. 46. ISBN 0934223599. Retrieved 24 May 2018. 
  24. ^ Warshow, Robert (March–April 1954). "Movie Chronicle: The Westerner". Partisan Review. 21 (2): 191. Retrieved 24 May 2018. CS1 maint: Date format (link)
  25. ^ "Rain". Film Article. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 15 May 2018. 
  26. ^ Hagen, Ray; Wagner, Laura (2004). Killer Tomatoes: Fifteen Tough Film Dames. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. `. p. 52. ISBN 9780786418831. 
  27. ^ "Scarface (1932)". Universal Pictures Home Entertainment. Universal City, California: Universal Studios. May 27, 2007. Archived from the original on January 13, 2017. Retrieved January 11, 2017. 
  28. ^ "Scarface (1932)" Archived November 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved September 29, 2009.
  29. ^ Leight, Elias (April 20, 2018). "'Scarface' Reunion: 10 Things we Learned at Tribeca Film Festival Event". Rolling Stone. Rolling Stone. Retrieved 25 May 2018. 
  30. ^ "Complete National Film Registry Listing". Library of Congress. Congress.gov. Retrieved 15 May 2018. 
  31. ^ "AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains" (PDF). American Film Institute. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 7, 2011. Retrieved July 13, 2015. 
  32. ^ Aaker, Everett (2013). The Films of George Raft. McFarland & Company. p. 24. 
  33. ^ Corliss, Richard (2001). "That Old Feeling: Hot and Heavy". Time, Inc. Time. Retrieved 15 May 2018. 
  34. ^ "A Young Jean-Luc Godard Picks the 10 Best American Films Ever Made (1963)". openculture.com. Archived from the original on July 2, 2017. Retrieved May 6, 2018. 
  35. ^ Johnson, Eric C. "Jean-Luc Godard's Top Ten Lists 1956-1965". alumnus.caltech.edu. Archived from the original on December 23, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2018. 
  36. ^ "AFI's 10 Top 10". American Film Institute. June 17, 2008. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved June 18, 2008. 
  37. ^ AP (2018). "Al Pacino, Brian de Palma reflect on legacy of "Scarface" 35 years later". CBS Interactive Inc. CBS News. Retrieved 15 May 2018. 
  38. ^ Chaney, Jen (2006). "'Scarface': Carrying Some Excess Baggage". The Washington Post Company. Washington Post. Retrieved 15 May 2018. 
  39. ^ Fleming, Jr., Mike (September 21, 2011). "Universal Preps New 'Scarface' Movie". Deadline Hollywood. United States: Penske Media Corporation. Archived from the original on November 5, 2013. Retrieved January 11, 2017. 
  40. ^ Fleming Jr., Mike (November 29, 2011). "David Ayer To Script Updated 'Scarface'". Deadline Hollywood. United States: Penske Media Corporation. Archived from the original on April 7, 2014. Retrieved January 11, 2017. 
  41. ^ Fleming, Jr., Mike (August 10, 2016). "Antoine Fuqua Circling New 'Scarface' At Universal". Deadline Hollywood. United States: Penske Media Corporation. Archived from the original on August 11, 2016. Retrieved August 11, 2016. 
  42. ^ Wrap Staff (February 10, 2017). "Coen Brothers to Bring Back 'Scarface' in 2018". The Wrap. Archived from the original on February 10, 2017. Retrieved February 10, 2017. 
  43. ^ Smyth, J. E. (2004). "Revisioning modern American history in the age of Scarface(1932)". Historical Journal of Film, Radio and Television. 24 (4): 535–563. doi:10.1080/0143968042000293865. ISSN 0143-9685. 
  44. ^ Mason, Fran (2002). American Gangster Cinema: From Little Caesar to Pulp Fiction. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 033674529 Check |isbn= value: length (help). 
Further reading
  • Cavallero, Jonathan J.; Plasketes, George (2004). "Gangsters,Fessos, Tricksters, and Sopranos: The Historical Roots of Italian American Stereotype Anxiety". Journal of Popular Film and Television. 32 (2): 50–73. doi:10.3200/JPFT.32.2.49-73. ISSN 0195-6051. 
  • Hagemann, E.R. (1984). "Scarface: The Art of Hollywood, Not "The Shame of a Nation"". The Journal of Popular Culture. 18 (1): 30–42. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1984.1801_30.x. ISSN 0022-3840. 
  • Klemens, Nadine (2006). Gangster mythology in Howard Hawks' "Scarface - Shame of the nation". GRIN Verlag. ISBN 978-3-638-47698-0. 
  • Majumdar, Gaurav (2004). ""I Can't See": Sovereignty, Oblique Vision, and the Outlaw in Hawks's Scarface". CR: The New Centennial Review. 4 (1): 211–226. doi:10.1353/ncr.2004.0024. ISSN 1539-6630. 
External links
  • Scarface on IMDb
  • Scarface at the TCM Movie Database
  • Scarface at Rotten Tomatoes
  • Scarface at the American Film Institute Catalog
  • The World is Yours: The Writing of the Original Scarface by Stephen Jacobs at Creativescreenwriting.com
  • Bibliography

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