Alice in Wonderland

Publication history

On 26 November 1865, Dodgson's tale was published by Macmillan of London as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland under the pseudonym "Lewis Carroll" with illustrations by John Tenniel.[31] The first print run of 2,000 was held back because Tenniel objected to the print quality.[12] A new edition, released in December of the same year for the Christmas market, but carrying an 1866 date, was quickly printed.[31] The text blocks of the original edition were removed from the binding and sold with Dodgson's permission to the New York publishing house of D. Appleton & Company. The binding for the Appleton Alice was identical to the 1866 Macmillan Alice, except for the publisher's name at the foot of the spine. The title page of the Appleton Alice was an insert cancelling the original Macmillan title page of 1865, and bearing the New York publisher's imprint and the date 1866.[31]

The entire print run sold out quickly. Alice was a publishing sensation, beloved by children and adults alike.[31] Among its first avid readers were Queen Victoria and the young Oscar Wilde.[32][33][34] The book has never been out of print.[31] Alice's Adventures in Wonderland has been translated into at least 97 languages,[4] or as many as 174 languages.[35] There have now been over a hundred editions of the book, as well as countless adaptations in other media, especially theatre and film.

The book is commonly referred to by the abbreviated title Alice in Wonderland, which has been popularised by the numerous stage, film and television adaptations of the story produced over the years. Some printings of this title contain both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There.

Publication timeline

The following list is a timeline of major publication events related to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland:

  • 1865: First U.K. edition (the second printing); first U.S. edition (the first printing of U.K. edition).[36]
  • 1869: Published in German as Alice's Abenteuer im Wunderland, translated by Antonie Zimmermann.[37]
  • 1869: Published in French as Aventures d'Alice au pays des merveilles, translated by Henri Bué.[38]
  • 1870: Published in Swedish as Alice's Äventyr i Sagolandet, translated by Emily Nonnen.[39]
  • 1871: Dodgson meets another Alice, Alice Raikes, during his time in London. He talks with her about her reflection in a mirror, leading to the sequel, Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There, which sells even better.
  • 1872: Published in Italian as Le Avventure di Alice nel Paese delle Meraviglie, translated by Teodorico Pietrocòla Rossetti.[40]
  • 1879: First Russian edition published as Соня в царстве Дива, translated by Yury Nesterenko.[41]
  • 1882: Selchow & Righter releases The Game of Alice in Wonderland, the first game based on the book.[42]
  • 1886: Carroll publishes a facsimile of the earlier Alice's Adventures Under Ground manuscript.
  • 1890: Carroll publishes The Nursery "Alice", a special edition "to be read by Children aged from Nought to Five".
  • 1899: First Japanese edition of an Alice novel is published as 鏡世界, a translation of Through the Looking-Glass rather than the first book.[43]
  • 1905: Mrs J. C. Gorham publishes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Retold in Words of One Syllable in a series of such books published by A. L. Burt Company, aimed at young readers. (.mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}ISBN 978-1-904808-44-2)
  • 1906: Published in Finnish as Liisan seikkailut ihmemaailmassa, translated by Anni Swan.[43]
  • 1907: Copyright on Alice's Adventures in Wonderland expires in UK, entering the tale into the public domain. At least 8 new editions would be published in this year alone.[44]
  • 1910: Published in Esperanto as La Aventuroj de Alicio en Mirlando, translated by E. L. Kearney.[43]
  • 1915: A dramatic screenplay script rendering of Alice in Wonderland by Alice Gerstenberg is published as Alice in Wonderland; a dramatization of Lewis Carrolls 'Alices adventures in Wonderland' and 'Through the looking glass.[45]
  • 1916: First edition of the Windermere Series is published: Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, illustrated by Milo Winter.[43]
  • 1928: The manuscript of Alice's Adventures Under Ground written and illustrated by Carroll, which he had given to Alice Liddell, was sold at Sotheby's on 3 April. It sold to Philip Rosenbach for £15,400, a world record for the sale of a manuscript at the time.[46]
  • 1945: Animated picture book is published, with illustrations and paper engineering by Julian Wehr.[47]
  • 1960: American writer Martin Gardner publishes a special edition, The Annotated Alice, incorporating the text of both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. It includes extensive annotations explaining the hidden allusions in the books, as well as full texts of the Victorian-era poems parodied in them. Later editions expand on these annotations.[48]
  • 1961: The Folio Society edition is published, including 42 illustrations by John Tenniel.
  • 1988: Lewis Carroll and Anthony Browne, illustrator of an edition from Julia MacRae Books, wins the Kurt Maschler Award (aka the Emil) for the year's best British "work of imagination for children, in which text and illustration are integrated so that each enhances and balances the other."[49]
  • 1998: Carroll's own copy of Alice, one of only six surviving copies of the 1865 first edition, is sold at an auction for US$1.54 million to an anonymous American buyer, becoming the most expensive children's book (or 19th-century work of literature) ever sold to that point.[50]
  • 1999: Lewis Carroll and Helen Oxenbury, illustrator of an edition from Walker Books, win the Kurt Maschler Award for integrated writing and illustration.[49]
  • 2001: Harper Collins publishes an edition with illustrations by Deloss McGraw.[51]
  • 2007: In celebration of the British Kate Greenaway Medal's 50th anniversary (1955–2005), the 1999 Walker Books edition illustrated by Helen Oxenbury is named as one of the top ten Medal-winning works, composing the ballot for a public election of the all-time favourite.[52]
  • 2008: Folio publishes Alice's Adventures Under Ground facsimile edition (limited to 3,750 copies, boxed with The Original Alice pamphlet).
  • 2009: Children's book collector and former American football player Pat McInally reportedly sold Alice Liddell's own copy at auction for US$115,000.[53]

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