Choices A, C, D.
Work Step by Step
Alpha particles are positively-charged, so the nucleus must also be positively charged to repel the alpha particle. If this charge (and mass) were spread out over a large volume, large-angle scattering would not be observed-- but it is observed. Finally, because most of the alpha particles pass through the foil without changing their trajectory, Rutherford’s experiment shows that the atom consists mostly of empty space.