## Organic Chemistry 9th Edition

Published by Brooks Cole

# Chapter 1 - Structure and Bonding - Problem - Page 24: 15

#### Answer

(a) Adrenaline Molecular Formula - $C_{9}$$H_{13}$$N$$O_{3} Number of Hydrogen Atoms bonded to each Carbon = 9 (b)Estrone Molecular Formula - C_{18}$$H_{22}$$O_{2}$ Number of Hydrogen Atoms bonded to each Carbon = 21

#### Work Step by Step

1. A Carbon bonded to only one atom other than Hydrogen has 3 Hydrogen atoms attached to it. (called a 1$^{\circ}$Carbon or primary Carbon) 2. A Carbon bonded to two atoms other than Hydrogen has 2 Hydrogen atoms attached to it. (called a 2$^{\circ}$Carbon or secondary Carbon) 3. A Carbon bonded to either three atoms other than Hydrogen has 1 Hydrogen attached to it.(called a 3$^{\circ}$Carbon or tertiary Carbon) 4. A Carbon bonded to four atoms other than Hydrogen has no Hydrogen attached to it. (called a 4$^{\circ}$Carbon or quarternary Carbon) 5. A Carbon atom having a double bond with another atom has 2 Hydrogen atoms attached to it. 6. A Carbon atom having a triple bond with another atom has only 1 Hydrogen atom attached to it. 7. A single line with no atom at the end represents a Carbon atom with 3 Hydrogens attached to it Now, on close inspection of the structures of Adrenaline and Estrone, we find that: (a) for Adrenaline Number of 1$^{\circ}$C or primary carbon = 1 so, total number of Hydrogen atoms on this carbon = 3 Number of 2$^{\circ}$C or secondary carbon = 1 so, total number of Hydrogen atoms on this carbon = 2 Number of 3$^{\circ}$C or tertiary carbon = 4 so, total number of Hydrogen atoms on these carbon atoms = 4 Number of 4$^{\circ}$C or quarternary carbon = 3 so, total number of Hydrogen atoms on these carbon atoms = 0 Hence, total number of Hydrogen atoms = 9 (b) for Estrone Number of 1$^{\circ}$C or primary carbon = 1 so, total number of Hydrogen atoms on this carbon = 3 Number of 2$^{\circ}$C or secondary carbon = 6 so, total number of Hydrogen atoms on this carbon = 12 Number of 3$^{\circ}$C or tertiary carbon = 6 so, total number of Hydrogen atoms on these carbon atoms = 6 Number of 4$^{\circ}$C or quarternary carbon = 4 so, total number of Hydrogen atoms on these carbon atoms = 0 Hence, total number of Hydrogen atoms = 21

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