## General Chemistry (4th Edition)

(a) Acid; $CNO^-$ (b) Base; $HOBr$ (c) Acid; $Cl{O_3}^-$ (d) Acid; $CH_3NH_2$ (e) Base; $ClN{H_3}^+$ (f) Base; $HON{H_3}^+$
1. Identifying if the compound is an acid or a base: (a) Normally, when we have a "H" as the first element to be represented in a formula, this compound is an acid. (Unless there is another group that indicates basicity). (b) This compound doesn't have a hydrogen, so it can't be an acid, but it has lone pairs in the hydrogen, which indicates basicity. (c) Same as (a) (d) The $-N{H_3}^+$ group is an acidity indicator. (e) The $-N{H_2}$ group is a basicity indicator. (f) Here, the rule in (a) doesn't apply, because we have $-NH_2$, which indicates basicity. 2. To get the conjugate base of an acid, remove one proton from its formula: - Remove one hydrogen: Ex: $HCNO -- \gt CNO$ - Subtract one from the charge: Ex: $CNO -- \gt CNO^-$ 3.To get the conjugate acid of a base, remove one proton from its formula: - Add one hydrogen Ex: $OBr^- --\gt HOBr^-$ - Add one to its charge: Ex: $HOBr^- --\gt HOBr$