Chemistry: The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change 7th Edition

Published by McGraw-Hill Education
ISBN 10: 007351117X
ISBN 13: 978-0-07351-117-7

Chapter 14 - Problems - Page 609: 14.2


See explanation below.

Work Step by Step

Elements in the same period have the same number of electron shells; moving across a period (so progressing from group to group), elements gain electrons and protons and become less metallic. This arrangement reflects the periodic recurrence of similar properties as the atomic number increases. For example, the alkali metals lie in one group (Group 1) and share similar properties, such as high reactivity and the tendency to lose one electron to arrive at a noble-gas electron configuration. Modern quantum mechanics explains these periodic trends in properties in terms of electron shells. The filling of each shell corresponds to a row in the table. In the s-block and p-block of the periodic table, elements within the same period generally do not exhibit trends and similarities in properties (vertical trends down groups are more significant). However, in the d-block, trends across periods become significant, and the f-block elements show a high degree of similarity across periods (particularly the lanthanides). If we examine the physical state of each element, we notice that on the left side of the table, elements such as lithium and beryllium are metallic solids, whereas on the right, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, and neon are all gases. This is because lithium and beryllium form metallic solids, whereas the elements to the right form covalent compounds with little intermolecular force holding them together. Therefore we can say that, in general, elements tend to go from solids to liquids to gases as we move across a given period. However, this is not a strict trend.
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