Chemistry 9th Edition

Published by Cengage Learning
ISBN 10: 1133611095
ISBN 13: 978-1-13361-109-7

Chapter 8 - Bonding: General Concepts - Active Learning Questions: 1

Answer

Electronegativity generally increases as one moves from left to right on the periodic table. Going down a group, the electronegativity decreases. Electronegativity is related to ionization energy in the sense that they both have to do with the energy/attractive force an atom has on hydrogen. Moreover, ionization energy increases from left to right on the periodic table as well. Atomic Radii follows a trend of left to right because as one moves right across a period, the electron becomes smaller.

Work Step by Step

Electronegativity is the property of a bonded atom to attract an electron itself. Electronegativity increases across a period because elements like the halogens greatly desire another electron to fill their octet whereas elements like the alkali metals would not feel much of a difference if they were given another electron. Electronegativity decreases down a group to the repulsive force of shielding electrons that prevent a stronger nuclear attraction. Ionization energy is the amount of energy it takes to remove an electron from an (gaseous) atom. Ionization energy increases as one moves across a period because the effective nuclear charge of atoms with more protons is larger on the orbital. As one moves down a group, the ionization energy decreases because the valence electrons that would be affected are farther from the nucleus. Atomic Radius increases as one moves down a group because an increased number of orbitals and more electrons requires a greater space for occupancy. In addition, the atomic radius decreases down a period because the attractive force of the nucleus is much greater. Electronegativity, Ionization Energy, and Atomic Radius are related in the sense that these are all properties of atoms that play a major role in bonding: electronegativity explains the types of bonds occurring; ionization energy describes which elements will bond with each other; atomic radius explains the importance of Coloumb's law and attractive forces.
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