Chemistry 9th Edition

Published by Cengage Learning
ISBN 10: 1133611095
ISBN 13: 978-1-13361-109-7

Chapter 2 - Atoms, Molecules, and Ions - Questions - Page 73: 20


a. The atom may be broken down into protons, neutrons, and electrons. b. Atoms of hydrogen may be identical if they contain the same number of neutrons. Conversely, atoms of hydrogen may be different through a different number of neutrons and therefore different atomic masses. c. Atoms of hydrogen contain one proton and one electron differing from helium which contains two protons and two electrons. Hydrogen may be similar to helium by gaining an electron to have 2 electrons similar to helium. d. Water is different from Peroxide as there is a 1:1 ratio of Hydrogen to Oxygen in Peroxide compared to 2:1 ratio in water by the Law of Constant Proportion. e. In a chemical reaction, there is a rearrangement of atoms between compounds or atoms. Therefore, a chemical reaction creates new substances. Mass is conserved in a chemical by the Law of Conservation of Mass as any atoms are transferred or rearranged between compounds and not created or destroyed.

Work Step by Step

a. Discoveries by Thomson, Rutherford, and Millikan have proved the existence of smaller or subatomic particles. b. Isotopes are elements with the different number of neutrons and therefore different atomic masses. Therefore hydrogen may exist in different forms with different isotopes and atomic masses. c. Atoms may gain electrons. Therefore, if hydrogen gains an electron, it will have two electrons similar to helium. d. The Law of Constant Proportion states that each compound has a specific ratio of elements in its formula. Therefore, because peroxide and water contain different proportions of Hydrogen and Oxygen, they are different compounds. e. The Law of Conservation of Mass states that matter cannot be created nor destroyed. Therefore, mass is conserved in a chemical reaction as all atoms in a chemical reaction are simply rearranged to form new compounds.
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