Chemistry (12th Edition)

Published by Prentice Hall
ISBN 10: 0132525763
ISBN 13: 978-0-13252-576-3

Chapter 6 - The Periodic Table - 6 Assessment - Page 188: 65


1) Calcium wants to lose two valence electrons to achieve the noble gas configuration, so it has a very low 2nd ionization. However, Potassium only needs to lose one valence electron to achieve the noble gas configuration, so it doesn't want to lose a second valence electron. Therefore, 2nd ionization is smaller for Calcium than Potassium. 2) Lithium and Cesium have the same number of valence electrons, however Cesium contains many more energy levels than Lithium does. This means that Cesium has much more shielding from the nucleus than Lithium does, so it is easier to remove an electron from Cesium. Therefore, Lithium has a larger first ionization energy than does Cesium 3) Magnesium has 2 valence that it wants to get rid of in order to achieve the noble gas configuration. This means that after it has lost 2 valence electrons, it will take an enormous amount of energy to remove an additional electron. On the other hand, Aluminum has 3 valence electrons that it wants to get rid of. Once it loses those 3 electrons, it will have achieved the noble gas configuration. Therefore, Magnesium has a larger third ionization energy than does aluminum

Work Step by Step

1) See Page 174-178 2) See Page 174-178 3) See Page 174-178
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