Chemistry (12th Edition)

Published by Prentice Hall
ISBN 10: 0132525763
ISBN 13: 978-0-13252-576-3

Chapter 16 - Solutions - 16 Assessment: 94

Answer

96.9g chloride, 54.1g sodium. 6.43g magnesium. 2.07g calcium, and 1.99g potassium in 5.0L of seawater.

Work Step by Step

In this question, we will use the concept of molarity to back-calculate the grams of five different solutes found in 5.0L of sea water from their molar concentrations. The five solutes and their molarities are as follows: • Chloride - 0.546M • Sodium - 0.470M • Magnesium - 0.053M • Calcium -0.0103M • Potassium - 0.0102M Once we establish the solubility parameters of a solute, the next thing that concerns us is how much of the solute is dissolved in how much of the solvent - the concentration. The primary measure of concentration is molarity - a measure of how many moles of a solute are dissolved in a liter of solution. We calculate molarity as follows: We first must discuss wtiat molarity indicates. Saying that a solution is 0.546M chloride means there are 0.546 moles of chloride ions in one liter of the solution. By this logic, as we have five liters, we have ( or 2.73 moles of chloride ions in our sample of seawater. By this same logic, we have the following amounts of moles for our other solutes: • Sodium - • Magnesium - • Calcium - Potassium - From here, we convert our moles to grams using molar masses for each element taken from the periodic table as follows:
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