a. Malignant cells
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Neoplasms and tumors are not, in and of themselves, cancerous. What makes them cancerous is when they contain malignant cells. These malignant cells divide very quickly, and their cytoplasm and plasma membranes have been changed. There are abnormal numbers of chromosomes within these cells, or the chromosomes become damaged. The cells' plasma membranes lack regular functioning adhesion proteins, causing these cells to break away from their tissues and travel through the bloodstream to develop malignant neoplasms elsewhere in the body.