Excess mineral nutrients in a lake can cause blooms, issues with fish osmoregulation, turbidity, and a buildup of toxins in the bodies of some organisms.
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Eutrophication occurs when excess nutrients, typically from agricultural or industrial runoff, flood a body of water. This balance disruption can cause a wide variety of issues, from water clouding (turbidity) to algae blooms that cause mass death of other organisms in the water, depending on the environment and the specific contaminant. Blooms are the most commonly associated issue with nutrient runoff, during which there is an explosion in some microorganism populations that choke out other organisms by depleting oxygen and other resources from the water.