Campbell Biology (11th Edition)

Published by Pearson
ISBN 10: 0-13409-341-0
ISBN 13: 978-0-13409-341-3

Chapter 32 - 32.4 - Concept Check - Page 682: 2


From most inclusive to least inclusive: Metazoa, Eumatazoa, Bilateria, Deuterostomia, Chordata.

Work Step by Step

All animals are Metazoa, therefore Metazoa is the most inclusive clade because it includes all animals. Eumetazoa are metazoa that have true tissues. Most animals other than sponges are Eumetazoa. Bilateria are Eumetazoans with bilateral symmetry and three germ layers. The majority of animal phyla are bilaterians. Deuterostomia are Bilaterians whose blastopore (first opening) develops into the anus. This includes chordates (vertebrates), and a few other organisms such as starfish and sea urchins. Chordata are Deuterostomians who are vertebrates (this includes humans and other mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds). Chordata are the least inclusive because they include far fewer members of the animal kingdom than the rest of the given clades. Lophotrochozoans and Ecdysozoans are protostomians; unlike deuterostomians, their blastopore develops into the mouth. Since humans are not protostomians, Lophotrochozoans and Ecdysozoans are not a part of the answer.
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