Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, 7th Edition

Published by McGraw-Hill Education
ISBN 10: 0073403717
ISBN 13: 978-0-07340-371-7

Chapter 1 - Section 1.1 - The Scope of Anatomy and Physiology - Before You Go On - Page 3: 1


The human anatomy has much resemblance to the complexity of a Russian doll; there are layers within the shell of one system, and yet correspondence that brings all systems together to function as one synchronous living organism, comprised of the following networks: Nervous System: Responsible for the perception and transport of external stimuli to various nerves, followed by the dorsal horn and gray matter, before reaching the brain where information from stimulus becomes conscious awareness.The nervous system have 3 main part the brain,spinal cord and neurons Musculoskeletal System Attached to the skeletal system, this system revolves around physiological movement of the body. In addition, this system supports, and stabilizes the body as a whole and protections various organs, such as the heart, and lungs which are protected by the rib cage. More so, the liver and large or small intestine, which are protected by abdominal muscles. Circulatory System This system is responsible for transporting nutrients and oxygen to blood for circulation to all bodily tissue, organs and muscles. It is vital for proper tissue perfusion, respiratory function, renal function, and liver metabolism. Respiratory System The respiratory system is responsible for proper hemoglobin maintenance in blood cells, oxygenation in the bloodstream and bodily organs. Centered around the lungs, oxygen inhaled is delivered to the alveoli in the lungs, where diffusion takes place – allowing the blood to pick up the oxygen through diffusion to deliver to the rest of the body. Digestive System This system responsible for breaking down food into chemicals and nutrients that can be absorbed by the gastrointestinal system and delivered to the rest of the body. Additionally, it is responsible for the metabolism of organic matter and excretion of fecal waste. Integumentary System This system discusses the responsibility skin – the dermis (most outermost layer of skin, in contact with the environment), epidermis, fatty tissue and sebaceous glands have with protecting the body and all of its contents. It is our primary defense system against pathogens and items we come in contact with in our environment every day. Urinary System This system is responsible for the filtration and excretion of blood and bodily fluids. Managed by the renal system, the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra have primary authority in the success of this system. Reproductive system Managed by the female and male sex organ, this system aims in the process of reproducing and the involvement of both male and female organs to aid in the production of sperm and eggs, in addition to hormones and respective secondary sex features that these hormones impact. Lymphatic system More commonly known as the immune system, the lymphatic system works to fight against infection, and illness through the employment of white blood cells, including neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes, in addition the numerous lymph nodes in the body, all of which aid in fighting an invader that has entered a body. Endocrine system This system involved the circulation and maintenance and secretion of hormones throughout the body and to the intended organ.

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As a current nursing student, I have become well educated in the anatomy and physiology of the human body and how it functions systematically as a series of chemicals and hormones and reactions that reflect the state of one's body, with a disposition to the current health, orientation and environment of the body. The answers have been assembled through the knowledge and experience I have acquired as a Registered Nurse student in the New York City region.
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