## Elementary Statistics (12th Edition)

$H_{0}:p=79.1$%=0.791 $H_{a}:p\ne0.791$ $\hat{p}$ is the number of objects with a specified value divided by the sample size. Hence $\hat{p}=0.39.$ The test statistic is:$z=\frac{\hat{p}-p}{\sqrt{p(1-p)/n}}=\frac{0.39-0.791}{\sqrt{0.791(1-0.791)/870}}=-29.09.$ The P is the probability of the z-score being more than 29.09 or less than -29.09 is the sum of the probability of the z-score being less than -29.09 plus 1 minus the probability of the z-score being less than 29.09, hence:P=0.0001+1-0.9999=0.0002. If the P-value is less than $\alpha$, which is the significance level, then this means the rejection of the null hypothesis. Hence:P=0.0002 is less than $\alpha=0.01$, hence we reject the null hypothesis. Hence we can say that there is sufficient evidence to support that the selection process is biased against Americans of Mexican ancestry.