#### Answer

(a) The standard divisor is 8 (thousand).
There are 8,000 people for each seat in congress.
(b) State A's standard quota is 17.25
State B's standard quota is 33.25
State C's standard quota is 66.75
State D's standard quota is 82.75
(c) State A's lower quota is 17
State A's upper quota is 18
State B's lower quota is 33
State B's upper quota is 34
State C's lower quota is 66
State C's upper quota is 67
State D's lower quota is 82
State D's upper quota is 83

#### Work Step by Step

(a) We can find the standard divisor.
$standard~divisor = \frac{total ~population}{number~of~ items}$
$standard~divisor = \frac{1600}{200}$
$standard~divisor = 8$
The standard divisor is 8 (thousand).
There are 8,000 people for each seat in congress.
(b) We can find each state's standard quota. The standard quota of each state is the state's population divided by the standard divisor.
State A:
$standard ~quota = \frac{population}{standard~divisor}$
$standard~quota = \frac{138}{8}$
$standard~quota = 17.25$
State A's standard quota is 17.25
State B:
$standard ~quota = \frac{population}{standard~divisor}$
$standard~quota = \frac{266}{8}$
$standard~quota = 33.25$
State B's standard quota is 33.25
State C:
$standard ~quota = \frac{population}{standard~divisor}$
$standard~quota = \frac{534}{8}$
$standard~quota = 66.75$
State C's standard quota is 66.75
State D:
$standard ~quota = \frac{population}{standard~divisor}$
$standard~quota = \frac{662}{8}$
$standard~quota = 82.75$
State D's standard quota is 82.75
(c) The lower quota is the standard quota rounded down to the nearest whole number. The upper quota is the standard quota rounded up to the nearest whole number. We can find each state's lower quota and upper quota.
State A's standard quota is 17.25
State A's lower quota is 17
State A's upper quota is 18
State B's standard quota is 33.25
State B's lower quota is 33
State B's upper quota is 34
State C's standard quota is 66.75
State C's lower quota is 66
State C's upper quota is 67
State D's standard quota is 82.75
State D's lower quota is 82
State D's upper quota is 83