Calculus 8th Edition

Published by Cengage
ISBN 10: 1285740629
ISBN 13: 978-1-28574-062-1

Chapter 1 - Functions and Limits - 1.4 The Tangent and Velocity Problems - 1.4 Exercises - Page 50: 8


(a) (i) 6 cm/s (ii) -4.712 cm/s (iii) -6.134 cm/s (iv) -6.268 cm/s (b) $-2\pi$ cm/s

Work Step by Step

The average velocity of the particle from time $t_{1}$ to $t_{2}$ is equal to $\frac{s(t_{2})-s(t_{1})}{t_{2}-t_{1}}$. We can then plug in values of $t_{1}$ and $t_{2}$ for each of the questions below. (a) (i) $t_{1}$ = 1s, $t_{2}$ = 2s, $v_{avg}$ = 6 cm/s (ii) $t_{1}$ = 1s, $t_{2}$ = 1.1s, $v_{avg}$ = -4.712 cm/s (iii) $t_{1}$ = 1s, $t_{2}$ = 1.01s, $v_{avg}$ = -6.134 cm/s (iv) $t_{1}$ = 1s, $t_{2}$ = 1.001s, $v_{avg}$ = -6.268 cm/s (b) We can essentially take the first derivative of the equation in the question at t = 1. $s = 2 sin(\pi t) + 3 cos(\pi t)$ $s' = 2\pi cos(\pi t) - 3\pi sin(\pi t)$ $s'(1) = 2\pi cos(\pi) - 3\pi sin(\pi)$ $s'(1) = -2\pi$ Thus the instantaneous velocity at t=1 is $-2\pi$ cm/s. We can also observe that, in part (a), as $t_{2}$ approaches 1s, the velocity approaches $-2\pi$ cm/s.
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