## Calculus (3rd Edition)

The domain of $\ln x$ is $(0,\infty)$ and the range is $R$.
Since $\ln x$ is defined only for all $x\gt 0$, then the domain of $\ln x$ is $(0,\infty)$ also since the output of $\ln x$ is unrestricted, then the range is $R$. Whenever $x=e^{-a}, a>0$, the value of $\ln x$ is negative.