As noun, a supreme ruler (often a monarch); adj., possessing supreme or ultimate power; acting or done independently or without outside interference. All of these meanings are relevant to the usages of the term in this text.
The husks of corn or wheat, which must be separated from the grain through winnowing or threshing—used metaphorically to refer to useless, worthless, insubstantial things, as in the idiom "separate the wheat from the chaff"
Overcome, bring under control, defeat, capture
In context, the useless nubs of over-grazed grass
As verb, the act of expressing sharp disapproval of someone because of their behavior or actions ;or as noun, such an expression of disapproval: "a rebuke"
Archaic, meaning to impede, hinder, or obstruct; related to the more common "encumber"
A town in ancient Palestine, believed to have been south of the Dead Sea. According to Genesis, it was destroyed by fire from heaven, together with the city of Gomorrah, for the wickedness of its inhabitants; used generally to refer to a wicked or depraved place.
Likely or prone to do something
To sharpen, from "whetstone," a kind of stone used to sharpen blades
To rule over, hold office or dominion over, or a period of such ruling
The state or feeling of disliking or being actively hostile or opposed to someone or something
An area in which, through "threshing," the useful parts of wheat or corn was separated from the useless husks, called "chaff"
In this context, to become larger or stronger
Monarch or ruler, especially an autocratic one
Somewhat dated, meaning not reforming or not showing repentance for bad deeds
A day of religious observance or abstinence; for most Christians, Sunday
Most pertinently, in Christian thought, the heavenly city or city of heaven.
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God Questions and Answers
The Question and Answer section for Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God is a great
resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.