Langston Hughes: Poems

Notes

  1. ^ Schuessler, Jennifer. "Langston Hughes Just Got a Year Older". New York Times. Retrieved 2018-08-09. 
  2. ^ Francis, Ted (2002). Realism in the Novels of the Harlem Renaissance.
  3. ^ Langston Hughes (1940). The Big Sea. p. 36. ISBN 0-8262-1410-X. 
  4. ^ a b Faith Berry, Langston Hughes, Before and Beyond Harlem, Westport, CT: Lawrence Hill & Co., 1983; reprint, Citadel Press, 1992, p. 1.
  5. ^ a b Richard B. Sheridan, "Charles Henry Langston and the African American Struggle in Kansas", Kansas State History, Winter 1999. Retrieved December 15, 2008.
  6. ^ Laurie F. Leach, Langston Hughes: A Biography, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004, pp. 2–4. ISBN 9780313324970,
  7. ^ "Ohio Anti-Slavery Society – Ohio History Central". ohiohistorycentral.org
  8. ^ William and Aimee Lee Cheek, "John Mercer Langston: Principle and Politics", in Leon F. Litwack and August Meier (eds), Black Leaders of the Nineteenth Century, University of Illinois Press, 1991, pp. 106–111.
  9. ^ "African-Native American Scholars". African-Native American Scholars. 2008. Retrieved July 30, 2008. 
  10. ^ West, Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance, 2003, p. 160.
  11. ^ Hughes recalled his maternal grandmother's stories: "Through my grandmother's stories life always moved, moved heroically toward an end. Nobody ever cried in my grandmother's stories. They worked, schemed, or fought. But no crying." Rampersad, Arnold, & David Roessel (2002). The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes, Knopf, p. 620.
  12. ^ The poem "Aunt Sues's Stories" (1921) is an oblique tribute to his grandmother and his loving "Auntie" Mary Reed, a close family friend. Rampersad, vol. 1, 1986, p. 43.
  13. ^ Imbued by his grandmother with a duty to help his race, Hughes identified with neglected and downtrodden black people all his life, and glorified them in his work. Brooks, Gwendolyn (October 12, 1986), "The Darker Brother", The New York Times.
  14. ^ Arnold Rampersad, The Life of Langston Hughes: Volume II: 1914–1967, I Dream a World, Oxford University Press, p. 11. ISBN 9780195146431
  15. ^ Ronnick: Within CAMWS territory Helen M. Chesnutt (1880-1969), Black Latinist https://camws.org/meeting/2005/abstracts2005/ronnick.html
  16. ^ Langston Hughes Reads His Poetry with commentary, audiotape from Caedmon Audio
  17. ^ "Langston Hughes, Writer, 65, Dead", The New York Times, May 23, 1967.
  18. ^ "Langston Hughes | Scholastic". www.scholastic.com. Retrieved 2017-06-20. 
  19. ^ "Langston Hughes biography: African-American history: Crossing Boundaries: Kansas Humanities Council". www.kansasheritage.org. Retrieved 2017-06-20. 
  20. ^ Langston Hughes (1940). The Big Sea, pp. 54–56.
  21. ^ Gwendolyn Brooks, review of The Darker Brother, The New York Times, October 12, 1986. Quote: "And the father, Hughes said, 'hated Negroes. I think he hated himself, too, for being a Negro. He disliked all of his family because they were Negroes.' James Hughes was tightfisted, uncharitable, cold."
  22. ^ Rampersad, vol. 1, 1986, p. 56.
  23. ^ "Poem" or "To F.S." first appeared in The Crisis in May 1925, and was reprinted in The Weary Blues and The Dream Keeper. Hughes never publicly identified "F.S.," but it is conjectured he was Ferdinand Smith, a merchant seaman whom the poet first met in New York in the early 1920s. Nine years older than Hughes, Smith influenced the poet to go to sea. Born in Jamaica in 1893, Smith spent most of his life as a ship steward and political activist at sea—and later in New York as a resident of Harlem. Smith was deported in 1951 to Jamaica for alleged Communist activities and illegal alien status. Hughes corresponded with Smith up until the latter's death in 1961. Berry, p. 347.
  24. ^ "Langston Hughes". Biography.com. Retrieved 2017-06-20. 
  25. ^ Leach, Langston Hughes: A Biography (2004), pp. xvi, 153.
  26. ^ Rampersad, Vol. 1, pp. 86–87, 89–90.
  27. ^ Admin_AD. "History - Hugh Wooding Law School". 
  28. ^ In 1926, Amy Spingarn, wife of Joel Elias Spingarn, who was president of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), served as patron for Hughes and provided the funds ($300) for him to attend Lincoln University. Rampersad, vol. 1, 1986, pp. 122–23.
  29. ^ In November 1927, Charlotte Osgood Mason ("Godmother" as she liked to be called), became Hughes's major patron. Rampersad. vol. 1, 1986, p. 156.
  30. ^ "Mule Bone: Langston Hughes and Zora Neale Hurston's Dream Deferred of an African-American Theatre of the Black Word.", African American Review, March 22, 2001. Retrieved March 7, 2008. "In February 1930, Hurston headed north, settling in Westfield, New Jersey. Godmother Mason (Mrs. Rufus Osgood Mason, their white protector) had selected Westfield, safely removed from the distractions of New York City, as a suitable place for both Hurston and Hughes to work."
  31. ^ "J. L. Hughes Will Depart After Questioning as to Communism", The New York Times, July 25, 1933.
  32. ^ a b Nero, Charles I. (1997), "Re/Membering Langston", in Martin Duberman (ed.), Queer Representations: Reading Lives, Reading Cultures, New York University Press, ISBN 978-0-81471-884-1
  33. ^ Yale Symposium, Was Langston Gay? commemorating the 100th birthday of Hughes in 2002.
  34. ^ Schwarz, pp. 68–88.
  35. ^ Although Hughes was extremely closeted, some of his poems may hint at homosexuality. These include: "Joy," "Desire", "Cafe: 3 A.M.," "Waterfront Streets", "Young Sailor", "Trumpet Player", "Tell Me", "F.S." and some poems in Montage of a Dream Deferred. LGBTQQ History Archived 2013-05-19 at the Wayback Machine., Iowa Pride Network. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
  36. ^ "Cafe 3 A.M." was against gay bashing by police, and "Poem for F.S." was about his friend Ferdinand Smith. Nero, Charles I. (1999), p. 500.
  37. ^ Jean Blackwell Hutson, former chief of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, said: "He was always eluding marriage. He said marriage and career didn't work.... It wasn't until his later years that I became convinced he was homosexual." Hutson & Nelson, Essence, February 1992, p. 96.
  38. ^ McClatchy, J. D. (2002). Langston Hughes: Voice of the Poet. New York: Random House Audio. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-55371-491-3. Though there were infrequent and half-hearted affairs with women, most people considered Hughes asexual, insistent on a skittish, carefree 'innocence.' In fact, he was a closeted homosexual. 
  39. ^ Aldrich (2001), p. 200.
  40. ^ Referring to men of African descent, Rampersad writes: "...Hughes found some young men, especially dark-skinned men, appealing and sexually fascinating. (Both in his various artistic representations, in fiction especially, and in his life, he appears to have found young white men of little sexual appeal.) Virile young men of very dark complexion fascinated him." Rampersad, vol. 2, 1988, p. 336.
  41. ^ "His fatalism was well placed. Under such pressure, Hughes's sexual desire, such as it was, became not so much sublimated as vaporized. He governed his sexual desires to an extent rare in a normal adult male; whether his appetite was normal and adult is impossible to say. He understood, however, that Cullen and Locke offered him nothing he wanted, or nothing that promised much for him or his poetry. If certain of his responses to Locke seemed like teasing (a habit Hughes would never quite lose with women, or, perhaps, men) they were not therefore necessarily signs of sexual desire; more likely, they showed the lack of it. Nor should one infer quickly that Hughes was held back by a greater fear of public exposure as a homosexual than his friends had; of the three men, he was the only one ready, indeed eager, to be perceived as disreputable." "Rampersad, The Life of Langston Hughes, Vol. I, p. 69.
  42. ^ Sandra West states: Hughes's "apparent love for black men as evidenced through a series of unpublished poems he wrote to a black male lover named 'Beauty'." West, 2003, p. 162.
  43. ^ Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Locations 22561-22562). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition.
  44. ^ Whitaker, Charles, "Langston Hughes: 100th birthday celebration of the poet of Black America", Ebony, April 2002.
  45. ^ "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" Archived 2010-07-26 at the Wayback Machine.. Audio file, Hughes reading. Poem information from Poets.org.
  46. ^ "The Negro Speaks of Rivers": first published in The Crisis (June 1921), p. 17. Included in The New Negro (1925), The Weary Blues, Langston Hughes Reader, and Selected Poems. The poem is dedicated to W. E. B. Du Bois in The Weary Blues, but it is printed without dedication in later versions. — Rampersad & Roessel (2002). In The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes, pp. 23, 620.
  47. ^ Rampersad & Roessel (2002), The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes, pp. 23, 620.
  48. ^ Hughes "disdained the rigid class and color differences the 'best people' drew between themselves and Afro-Americans of darker complexion, of smaller means and lesser formal education." — Berry, 1983 & 1992, p. 60.
  49. ^ "The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain" (June 1926), The Nation.
  50. ^ Rampersad, 1988, vol. 2, p. 418.
  51. ^ West, 2003, p. 162.
  52. ^ "My People" First published as "Poem" in The Crisis (October 1923), p. 162, and The Weary Blues (1926). The title poem "My People" was collected in The Dream Keeper (1932) and the Selected Poems of Langston Hughes (1959). Rampersad & Roessel (2002), The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes, pp. 36, 623.
  53. ^ a b Rampersad. vol. 2, 1988, p. 297.
  54. ^ Rampersad. vol. 1, 1986, p. 91.
  55. ^ Mercer Cook, African-American scholar of French culture wrote: "His (Langston Hughes) work had a lot to do with the famous concept of Négritude, of black soul and feeling, that they were beginning to develop." Rampersad, vol. 1, 1986, p. 343.
  56. ^ Rampersad. vol. 1, 1986, p. 343.
  57. ^ Charlotte Mason generously supported Hughes for two years. She supervised his writing his first novel, Not Without Laughter (1930). Her patronage of Hughes ended about the time the novel appeared. Rampersad. "Langston Hughes", in The Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature, 2001, p. 207.
  58. ^ a b Tanenhaus, Sam (1997). Whittaker Chambers: A Biography. Random House. 
  59. ^ Anne Loftis (1998), Witnesses to the Struggle, p. 46, University of Nevada Press, ISBN 978-0-87417-305-5.
  60. ^ Chambers, Whittaker (1952). Witness. New York: Random House. pp. 44–45 (includes description of Lieber), 203, 266fn, 355, 365, 366, 388, 376–377, 377fn, 394, 397, 401, 408, 410. LCCN 52005149. 
  61. ^ Noel Sullivan, after working out an agreement with Hughes, became a patron for him in 1933. — Rampersad, vol. 1, 1986, p. 277.
  62. ^ Sullivan provided Hughes with the opportunity to complete The Ways of White Folks (1934) in Carmel, California. Hughes stayed a year in a cottage Sullivan provided. — Rampersad, "Langston Hughes". In The Concise Oxford Companion to African American Literature, 2001, p. 207.
  63. ^ Rampersad (2001) Langston Hughes, p. 207.
  64. ^ Co-written with Clarence Muse, African-American Hollywood actor and musician. — Rampersad. vol. 1, 1986, pp. 366–69.
  65. ^ a b "Langston Hughes". Chicago Literary Hall of Fame. Chicago Writers Association. Archived from the original on September 8, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2013. 
  66. ^ Rampersad, 1988, vol. 2, p. 207.
  67. ^ Langston's misgivings about the new black writing were because of its emphasis on black criminality and frequent use of profanity. — Rampersad, vol. 2, p. 207.
  68. ^ Hughes said: "There are millions of blacks who never murder anyone, or rape or get raped or want to rape, who never lust after white bodies, or cringe before white stupidity, or Uncle Tom, or go crazy with race, or off-balance with frustration." — Rampersad, vol. 2, p. 119.
  69. ^ Langston eagerly looked to the day when the gifted young writers of his race would go beyond the clamor of civil rights and integration and take a genuine pride in being black... he found this latter quality starkly absent in even the best of them. — Rampersad, vol. 2, p. 310.
  70. ^ "As for whites in general, Hughes did not like them...He felt he had been exploited and humiliated by them." — Rampersad, 1988, vol. 2, p. 338.
  71. ^ Hughes's advice on how to deal with racists was, "'Always be polite to them...be over-polite. Kill them with kindness.' But, he insisted on recognizing that all whites are not racist, and definitely enjoyed the company of those who sought him out in friendship and with respect." — Rampersad, 1988, vol. 2, p. 368.
  72. ^ Rampersad, 1988, vol. 2, p. 409.
  73. ^ The end of "A New Song" was substantially changed when it was included in A New Song (New York: International Workers Order, 1938).
  74. ^ Tanenhaus, Sam (1997). Whittaker Chambers: A Biography. Random House.  Malcolm Cowley, Floyd Dell, and Chambers were also involved in this intended film.
  75. ^ Arthur Koestler, "The Invisible Writing", Ch. 10.
  76. ^ "Abraham Lincoln Brigade Archives". Alba-valb.org. Retrieved July 24, 2010. 
  77. ^ Langston Hughes (2001), Fight for Freedom and Other Writings, University of Missouri Press, p. 9.
  78. ^ Irma Cayton, African American, said: "He had told me that it wasn't our war, it wasn't our business, there was too much Jim Crow. But he had changed his mind about all that." Rampersad, 1988, vol. 2, p. 85.
  79. ^ Kimberly Winston, Religious News Service, "Blacks say atheists were unseen civil rights heroes", Washington Post, February 22, 2012.
  80. ^ Executive Sessions of the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Government Operations, Volume 2, Volume 107, Issue 84 of S. prt, Beth Bolling, ISBN 9780160513626. Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Publisher: U.S. GPO. Original from the University of Michigan p. 988.
  81. ^ a b Leach, Langston Hughes: A Biography (2004), pp. 118–119.
  82. ^ Donald V. Calamia, "Review: 'Hannibal of the Alps'" Archived 2015-11-22 at the Wayback Machine.. Pride Source, from Between The Lines, June 9, 2005.
  83. ^ "We are African Americans for Humanism". African Americans for Humanism. Retrieved February 2, 2015. 
  84. ^ Jeff Lunden, "'Ask Your Mama': A Music And Poetry Premiere", NPR.
  85. ^ "THE LANGSTON HUGHES PROJECT". 
  86. ^ "Ronald C. McCurdy, Ph.D." Biography.
  87. ^ "Ice-T and Ron McCurdy – the Langston Hughes Project " Archived 2015-11-22 at the Wayback Machine., Artform press releases.
  88. ^ "Fiction Book Review: Harlem Mosaics". Publishers Weekly. 28 April 2018. 
  89. ^ "Powerful Poem About Race Gets A Full Page In The New York Times". Huffington Post. 22 September 2016. 
  90. ^ "Langston Hughes Memorial Library". Lincoln University. Retrieved November 13, 2013. 
  91. ^ "Langston Hughes — Poet". h2g2: The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Retrieved July 24, 2010. 
  92. ^ Jen Carlson (June 18, 2007)."Langston Hughes Lives On In Harlem" Archived 2008-02-02 at the Wayback Machine., Gothamist. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  93. ^ National Park Service (2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 
  94. ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
  95. ^ "Langston Hughes". Chicago Literary Hall of Fame. 2012. Retrieved 2017-10-08. 
  96. ^ "Langston Hughes' 113th Birthday". 

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