Divine Comedy-I: Inferno

Notes

  1. ^ There are many English translations of this famous line. Some examples include
    • All hope abandon, ye who enter here – Henry Francis Cary (1805–1814)
    • All hope abandon, ye who enter in! – Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1882)
    • Leave every hope, ye who enter! – Charles Eliot Norton (1891)
    • Leave all hope, ye that enter – Carlyle Okey-Wicksteed (1932)
    • Lay down all hope, you that go in by me. – Dorothy L. Sayers (1949)
    • Abandon all hope, ye who enter here – John Ciardi (1954)
    • Abandon every hope, you who enter. – Charles S. Singleton (1970)
    • No room for hope, when you enter this place – C. H. Sisson (1980)
    • Abandon every hope, who enter here. – Allen Mandelbaum (1982)
    • Abandon all hope, you who enter here. – Robert Pinsky (1993); Robert Hollander (2000)
    • Abandon every hope, all you who enter – Mark Musa (1995)
    • Abandon every hope, you who enter. – Robert M. Durling (1996)
    Verbatim, the line translates as "Leave (lasciate) every (ogne) hope (speranza), ye (voi) that (ch') enter (intrate)."
  2. ^ Mandelbaum, note to his translation, p. 357 of the Bantam Dell edition, 2004, says that Dante may simply be preserving an ancient conflation of the two deities; Peter Bondanella in his note to the translation of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, The Inferno: Dante Alighieri (Barnes & Noble Classics, 2003), pp. 202–203, thinks Plutus is meant, since Pluto is usually identified with Dis, and Dis is a distinct figure.
  3. ^ The punishment of immersion was not typically ascribed in Dante's age to the violent, but the Visio attaches it to those who facere praelia et homicidia et rapinas pro cupiditate terrena ("make battle and murder and rapine because of worldly cupidity"). Theodore Silverstein (1936), "Inferno, XII, 100–126, and the Visio Karoli Crassi," Modern Language Notes, 51:7, 449–452, and Theodore Silverstein (1939), "The Throne of the Emperor Henry in Dante's Paradise and the Mediaeval Conception of Christian Kingship," Harvard Theological Review, 32:2, 115–129, suggests that Dante's interest in contemporary politics would have attracted him to a piece like the Visio. Its popularity assures that Dante would have had access to it. Jacques Le Goff, Goldhammer, Arthur, tr. (1986), The Birth of Purgatory (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-47083-0), states definitively that ("we know [that]") Dante read it.
  4. ^ Allen Mandelbaum on Canto XXI, lines 112–114: "the bridges of Hell crumbled 1266 years ago – at a time five hours later than the present hour yesterday. Dante held that Christ died after having completed 34 years of life on this earth – years counted from the day of the Incarnation. Luke affirms that the hour of His death was the sixth – that is, noon. If this is the case, then Malacoda is referring to a time which is 7 A.M., five hours before noon on Holy Saturday."[82]

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