And the Mountains Echoed Literary Elements

And the Mountains Echoed Literary Elements


Tragedy, War

Setting and Context

Set during 1949-2010 in Afghanistan, France, Greece and the US

Narrator and Point of View

Multiple narrators with different POV, eg. Chapter Three is narrated form Abdullah's POV in third person, Chapter 4 is a letter by Nabi, Chapter 8 is narrated from Markos' POV in first person

Tone and Mood

Nostalgic, Regretful, Conflicted,

Protagonist and Antagonist

Main protagonists are Abdullah and Pari, Saboor's financial condition is the antagonist

Major Conflict

Separation os Abdullah form his sister, Pari when she is sold to a childless couple


Pari meets Abdullah after a period of almost sixty years, hoping if he would recognise her.


The story of Baba Ayub in first chapter creates a foreshadowing for the reunion of Abdullah and PAri. Is the memory of an estranged beloved person a boon or bane?


Pari understates her adoptive mother Nila's depression to pleas for attention leading to her suicide.


There are multiple allusions to supernatural creatures in Islamic mythology, the divs and the jins. Divs are monsters, or demons. Jins are genies who grant wishes on being revered.


The presence of greenery and desert are used as contrasting elements in Afghanistan. Greenery is meant for prosperity and stability and the desert is meant for despair and directionlessness


Adel's father, who is a criminal of war, encroaches upon Iqbal's land and yet states, that he will not be threstened in his house.


The parallelism occurs in the story of Baba Ayub and Qais and the real life story of Abdullah and Pari.

Metonymy and Synecdoche

"So I say this to you, young daughters of Afghanistan..." said by Adel's father is a metonymy
NA for synecdoche


'Parwana keeps marching toward her new life. She keeps walking, the darkness around her like a mother’s womb, and when it lifts, when she looks up in the dawn haze and catches a band of pale light from the east striking the side of a boulder, it feels like being born.'
Darkness is personified as a womb.

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