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Once he hooks the fish, Santiago is pulled out to sea for over four hours because the fish is so strong.
Santiago eventually loses all sight of land.
Santiago's hand cramps up from holding the line and is basically useless.
The marlin rushes and leaps, waking Santiago from a sound sleep and cutting his hand deeply.
Santiago becomes exhausted and dehydrated due to the length of his time at sea.
Once he harpoons the marlin and attaches it to the skiff it is attacked by sharks and mutilated.
The Old Man and the Sea