The Question and Answer section for The Federalist Papers is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel.
Your question is long and involved. I suggest you refer to GradeSaver's detailed summary and analysis for Federalist Paper 51, and if you have further, more specific questions, feel free to ask them here.
This question calls for your opinion based upon the text in question. It would be inapproppriate for me to address politics on this forum.
GradeSaver has a complete summary and analysis of Federalist 4 that you can utilize to prepare your essay. Jay favored a strong federal government.... a government that is run by a central authority. Those who disagreed were intent upon guarding...