(d) all of the above
Work Step by Step
Following causes irreversibilities during operation of an internal combustion automobile engine. 1. Friction: In automobile engine, there is friction mainly between piston and cylinder of automobile engine. 2. Heat Transfer: There is internal heat transfer between local high temperature zones (point of combustion) and comparatively low temperature zone like cylinder wall (which is continuously cooled from surrounding). 3. Chemical reaction: There is a spontaneous chemical reaction in which chemical energy(fuel) is converted into thermal energy(heat).