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Are you referring to Julius Caesar the man or simply the play's context? Here is a bit about the context of the play and the rise of Julius Caesar:
Julius Caesar opens in 44 B.C., at a time when Rome ruled territories stretching from as far north as Britain to as far east as Persia. However, Rome's military success had come at a serious cost to the political situation in the home city, which was governed by a senate. Rome's senators became increasingly factionalized causing internal disarray, which allowed the more successful military generals gain power. Furthermore, the state suffered from class divisions, and the plebeians had managed to win the right to elect "tribunes," or representatives, giving them some political power. However, women and most of the plebeian men remained excluded from this franchise. Thus, although the republic showed some signs of democracy, the majority did not participate in the general politics.
Julius Caesar was a Roman general who had made a name for himself through his successful campaigning of northwest Europe. His advantage lay not only in winning battles, but also in his popularity among the poorer classes in Rome. He possessed innate talent, charisma, ambition, and luck, which, when combined, allowed his political power to increase.
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