He is telling a story in 59 chapters with various circumstances.
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It might not be the best way to think of Faulkner's approach as an "argument," since his goal is likely not to convince his readers of something. But the approach does indicate a general philosophy about history and perspective that pervades a lot of his work. AS I LAY DYING is very much about history - this family confronts their own past as they seek to bury their matriarch, and of course, general questions of Southern legacy go through the work. The multiple narrators in the novel suggest that history is not lucid and singular but rather fragmented and imperfect, defined by individual perspectives and hence imperfect and inefficient. It is a multitude rather than a single path, defined by contradictions as much as by anything. We are who we are by pitting our individuality against the demands of our pasts.