Ave Maria School of Law

Give me the origin, history of the words breath, military, alone, third, force, power, candidates?

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Okay............. now there are four of you with the same assignment? Thank you for keeping these questions out of the study guide questions, but I have to wonder if "FOUR" people are just fooling around here.


O.E. bræð "odor, scent, stink, exhalation, vapor" (O.E. word for "air exhaled from the lungs" was æðm), from P.Gmc. *bræthaz "smell, exhalation" (cf. O.H.G. bradam, Ger. Brodem "breath, steam"), from PIE root *gwhre- "to breathe, smell."


military (n.)

"soldiers generally," 1757, from military (adj.). Earlier, "a military man" (1736).

military (adj.)

mid-15c., from M.Fr. militaire (14c.), from L. militaris "of soldiers or war, of military service, warlike," from miles (gen. militis) "soldier," of unknown origin, perhaps ultimately from Etruscan, or else meaning "one who marches in a troop," and thus connected to Skt. melah "assembly," Gk. homilos "assembled crowd, throng." Related: Militarily. Old English had militisc, from Latin. Military-industrial complex coined 1961 in farewell speech of U.S. president Dwight D. Eisenhower.



c.1300 contraction of all ane, from O.E. all ana "unaccompanied, all by oneself," from all "all, wholly" (see all) + an "one" (see one). Similar compounds are found in German (allein) and Dutch (alleen).


third (adj.)

O.E. metathesis of þridda, from P.Gmc. *thridjas (cf. O.Fris. thredda, O.S. thriddio, M.L.G. drudde, Du. derde, O.H.G. dritto, Ger. dritte, O.N. þriðe, Goth. þridja), from PIE *tritjos (cf. Skt. trtiyas, Avestan thritya, Gk. tritos, L. tertius, O.C.S. tretiji, Lith. trecias, O.Ir. triss). Related to O.E. þreo (see three). Metathesis of thrid into third is attested from c.950 in Northumbria, but thrid was prevalent up to 16c. The noun meaning "third part of anything" is recorded from late 14c. Third rail in electric railway sense is recorded from 1890. Third World War as a possibility first recorded 1947. Third-rate "of poor quality" is from 1814, ultimately from classification of ships (1640s); third class in railway travel is from 1839. Third Reich (1930) is a partial translation of Ger. drittes Reich (1923). Third party in law, insurance, etc., is from 1818.


force (n.)

c.1300, "physical strength," from O.Fr. force (12c.) "force, strength, courage, fortitude; violence, power, compulsion," from V.L. *fortia (cf. Sp. fuerza, It. forza), noun use of neut. pl. of L. fortis "strong" (see fort). Meaning "body of armed men, army" first recorded late 14c. (also in O.Fr.). Physics sense is from 1660s; force field attested by 1920.

force (v.)

c.1300, from O.Fr. forcier "conquer by violence," from force (see force (n.)). Its earliest sense in English was "to ravish" (a woman); sense of "to compel, oblige" to do something is from c.1400. Related: Forced; forcing.


power (v.)

"to supply with power," 1898, from power (n.). Related: Powered; powering.



c.1600s, from L. candidatus "one aspiring to office," originally "white-robed," pp. of candidare "to make white or bright," from candidus (see candid). Office-seekers in ancient Rome wore white togas.