A Doll's House

How are the elements of pathos introduced into the story?

shift in mood

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Initially through Torvald's patronizing and controlling nature. He forbids her to macaroons and chastises her for spending money. Then Dr. Rank is introduced, he generates sympathy because he is suffering from a degenerative, terminal back disease that he inherited from his father, who was a womanizer. So he is paying for the sins of his father, a recurring theme in the play. Later when we learn of his unrequited love for Nora, the audience is even more sympathetic.