from what and how does he make a ladder ?
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Brian makes his ladder using a dead pine tree. He removes all of the branches, takes the log to his shelter, and props it up to climb to the ledge.
A ladder, of course. He needed a ladder. But he had no way to fashion one, nothing to hold the steps on, and that stopped him until he found a dead pine with many small branches still sticking out. Using his hatchet he chopped the branches off so they stuck out four or five inches, all up along the log, then he cut the log off about ten feet long and dragged it down to his shelter. It was a little heavy, but dry and he could manage it, and when he propped it up he found he could climb to the ledge with ease, though the tree did roll from side to side a bit as he climbed.
Water refracts light, causing the fish to appear to be in a different position than they really are. When it broke, the bow nearly blinded him, and blindness would have been fatal.